:: Small Inductive Dimension of Topological Spaces, Part {II}
:: by Karol P\c{a}k
::
:: Received August 7, 2009
:: Copyright (c) 2009-2021 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, NAT_1, SETFAM_1, TREES_2, TARSKI, CARD_1, XBOOLE_0,
FINSET_1, PEPIN, XXREAL_0, ORDINAL1, ARYTM_3, ARYTM_1, SUBSET_1, FUNCT_1,
RELAT_1, INT_1, PCOMPS_1, PRE_TOPC, TOPDIM_1, WAYBEL23, RCOMP_1, PROB_1,
TOPGEN_4, CARD_3, ZFMISC_1, STRUCT_0, RLVECT_3, TOPS_1, MCART_1,
METRIZTS, EUCLID, REAL_1, FINSEQ_1, METRIC_1, FINSEQ_2, RVSUM_1,
SQUARE_1, COMPLEX1, CONNSP_1, T_0TOPSP, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_4, CARD_2,
CONVEX1, FUNCT_7;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, XTUPLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1,
MCART_1, ZFMISC_1, FUNCT_2, BINOP_1, CARD_1, CANTOR_1, COMPLEX1,
FINSET_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, REAL_1, XXREAL_3, INT_1,
NAT_1, SETFAM_1, DOMAIN_1, FUNCOP_1, TOPS_2, STRUCT_0, PRE_TOPC,
METRIC_1, PCOMPS_1, CARD_3, PROB_1, CONVEX1, KURATO_2, WAYBEL23, TOPS_1,
T_0TOPSP, CARD_2, RVSUM_1, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, EUCLID, BORSUK_1,
TOPGEN_4, FUNCT_4, SQUARE_1, CONNSP_1, TOPREAL9, ORDERS_4, METRIZTS,
TOPDIM_1;
constructors TOPS_2, BORSUK_1, REAL_1, COMPLEX1, CANTOR_1, TOPGEN_4, WAYBEL23,
TOPS_1, SQUARE_1, RVSUM_1, BORSUK_3, CARD_2, CONNSP_1, BINOP_2, TOPREAL9,
ORDERS_4, XXREAL_3, METRIZTS, TOPDIM_1, FUNCSDOM, PCOMPS_1, CONVEX1,
XTUPLE_0, NUMBERS;
registrations PRE_TOPC, PCOMPS_1, NAT_1, XREAL_0, SUBSET_1, STRUCT_0, TOPS_1,
XXREAL_0, YELLOW13, CARD_1, XBOOLE_0, FINSET_1, VALUED_0, RELAT_1,
FUNCT_1, INT_1, CARD_3, TOPGEN_4, BORSUK_3, BORSUK_1, XXREAL_3, METRIZTS,
TOPDIM_1, EUCLID, RELSET_1, JORDAN1, JORDAN2C, XTUPLE_0, ORDINAL1;
requirements REAL, SUBSET, NUMERALS, ARITHM, BOOLE;
definitions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, TOPS_2, SETFAM_1;
equalities STRUCT_0, SQUARE_1, EUCLID, PCOMPS_1, TOPS_1, METRIC_1, SUBSET_1,
CARD_3, TOPDIM_1, ORDINAL1;
expansions PCOMPS_1, TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, TOPS_2, CARD_3, TOPDIM_1;
theorems ABSVALUE, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, RVSUM_1, TARSKI,
XREAL_0, COMPLEX1, XREAL_1, XXREAL_0, FUNCOP_1, ORDINAL1, RELAT_1,
PRE_TOPC, TOPMETR, EUCLID, METRIC_1, XBOOLE_0, TOPS_1, TOPS_2, TOPREAL7,
PROB_1, ZFMISC_1, NAT_1, KURATO_2, INT_1, TOPGEN_1, XBOOLE_1, MCART_1,
CARD_1, TOPGEN_4, SUBSET_1, TSEP_1, TSP_1, SETFAM_1, CARD_4, YELLOW_9,
ORDERS_4, BORSUK_1, CARD_3, CARD_2, NECKLACE, BORSUK_3, TOPALG_3,
TOPREAL9, JORDAN2B, JORDAN, STIRL2_1, FUNCT_4, ENUMSET1, XXREAL_3,
CONNSP_1, WELLORD2, METRIZTS, PCOMPS_1, TOPDIM_1, YELLOW14, XTUPLE_0;
schemes FUNCT_2, NAT_1, CLASSES1, LMOD_7, BORSUK_2;
begin :: Order of a Family of Subsets of a Set
reserve n for Nat,
X for set,
Fx,Gx for Subset-Family of X;
definition
let X,Fx;
attr Fx is finite-order means :Def1:
ex n st for Gx st Gx c=Fx & n in card Gx holds meet Gx is empty;
end;
registration
let X;
cluster finite-order for Subset-Family of X;
existence
proof
reconsider E={} as Subset-Family of X by XBOOLE_1:2;
take E,0;
let G be Subset-Family of X;
thus thesis;
end;
cluster finite -> finite-order for Subset-Family of X;
coherence
proof
let F be Subset-Family of X;
assume F is finite;
then reconsider f=F as finite Subset-Family of X;
take n=card f;
let G be Subset-Family of X;
assume that
A1: G c=F and
A2: n in card G;
card G c= Segm card f by A1,CARD_1:11;
hence meet G is empty by A2,NAT_1:44;
end;
end;
definition
let X,Fx;
func order Fx -> ExtReal means :Def2:
(for Gx st it+1 in card Gx & Gx c= Fx holds meet Gx is empty)
& ex Gx st Gx c= Fx & card Gx = it+1 &
(meet Gx is non empty or Gx is empty) if Fx is finite-order
otherwise it = +infty;
existence
proof
defpred P[Nat] means
for Gx st Gx c=Fx & $1 in card Gx holds meet Gx is empty;
now
assume Fx is finite-order;
then
A1: ex n st P[n];
consider k be Nat such that
A2: P[k] and
A3: for n be Nat st P[n] holds k<=n from NAT_1:sch 5(A1);
take O=k-1;
thus for Gx st O+1 in card Gx & Gx c=Fx holds meet Gx is empty by A2;
thus ex Gx be Subset-Family of X st Gx c=Fx & card Gx=O+1 &
(meet Gx is non empty or Gx is empty)
proof
per cases;
suppose
A4: k=0;
reconsider E={} as Subset-Family of X by XBOOLE_1:2;
take E;
thus E c=Fx & card E=O+1 & (meet E is non empty or E is empty) by A4;
end;
suppose k>0;
then reconsider k1=k-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
assume
A5: for Gx st Gx c=Fx & card Gx=O+1 holds meet Gx
is empty & Gx is non empty;
P[k1]
proof
A6: card Segm card(k1+1)=card(k1+1);
A7: card(k1+1)=k;
let Gx such that
A8: Gx c=Fx and
A9: k1 in card Gx;
nextcard card Segm k1=card k by A6,NAT_1:42;
then card k c=card Gx by A9,CARD_3:90;
then consider f be Function such that
A10: f is one-to-one & dom f=k and
A11: rng f c=Gx by CARD_1:10;
reconsider R=rng f as Subset-Family of X by A11,XBOOLE_1:1;
k,R are_equipotent by A10,WELLORD2:def 4;
then
A12: k=card R by A7,CARD_1:5;
then
A13: R is non empty by A6;
R c=Fx by A8,A11;
then meet R is empty by A5,A12;
then meet Gx c={} by A11,A13,SETFAM_1:6;
hence thesis;
end;
then k1+1<=k1 by A3;
hence contradiction by NAT_1:13;
end;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let O1,O2 be ExtReal;
now
assume Fx is finite-order;
assume
A14: for Gx st O1+1 in card Gx & Gx c=Fx holds meet Gx is empty;
given G1 be Subset-Family of X such that
A15: G1 c=Fx and
A16: card G1=O1+1 and
A17: meet G1 is non empty or G1 is empty;
assume
A18: for Gx st O2+1 in card Gx & Gx c=Fx holds meet Gx is empty;
given G2 be Subset-Family of X such that
A19: G2 c=Fx and
A20: card G2=O2+1 and
A21: meet G2 is non empty or G2 is empty;
not card G2 in card G1 by A15,A17,A18,A20;
then
A22: card G1 c=card G2 by CARD_1:3;
not card G1 in card G2 by A14,A16,A19,A21;
then card G1=card G2 by A22,CARD_1:3;
hence O1=O2 by A16,A20,XXREAL_3:11;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
consistency;
end;
registration
let X;
let F be finite-order Subset-Family of X;
cluster order F + 1 -> natural;
coherence
proof
consider G be Subset-Family of X such that
A1: G c=F and
A2: card G=order F+1 and
A3: meet G is non empty or G is empty by Def2;
consider n such that
A4: for H be Subset-Family of X st H c=F & n in card H holds meet H is
empty by Def1;
not card n in card G by A1,A3,A4;
then card G c=n by CARD_1:4;
then reconsider G as finite Subset-Family of X;
order F+1=card G-1+1 by A2;
hence thesis;
end;
cluster order F -> integer;
coherence
proof
reconsider O1=order F+1 as Nat by TARSKI:1;
order F+1=O1-1+1;
hence thesis by XXREAL_3:11;
end;
end;
theorem Th1:
order Fx <= n implies Fx is finite-order
proof
assume order Fx<=n;
then order Fx<>+infty by XXREAL_0:4;
hence thesis by Def2;
end;
theorem
order Fx <= n implies
for Gx st Gx c= Fx & n+1 in card Gx holds meet Gx is empty
proof
A1: card(n+1)=n+1;
assume
A2: order Fx<=n;
then reconsider f=Fx as finite-order Subset-Family of X by Th1;
order f+1<=n+1 by A2,XREAL_1:6;
then order f+1n;
then order f+1>n1 by XREAL_1:6;
then n1 in Segm(order f + 1) by NAT_1:44;
hence thesis by A2,A10,A12,A11;
end;
begin :: Basic Properties for n-dimensional Topological Spaces
reserve TM for metrizable TopSpace,
TM1,TM2 for finite-ind second-countable metrizable TopSpace,
A,B,L,H for Subset of TM,
U,W for open Subset of TM,
p for Point of TM,
F,G for finite Subset-Family of TM,
I for Integer;
Lm1: for T be TopSpace,Af be finite-ind Subset of T holds ind Af+1 is Nat
proof
let T be TopSpace,Af be finite-ind Subset of T;
Af in (Seq_of_ind T).(1+ind Af) by TOPDIM_1:def 5;
then (ind Af)+1 in dom(Seq_of_ind T) by FUNCT_1:def 2;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm2: for T be TopSpace,g be SetSequence of T st for i be Nat holds g.i is
finite-ind & ind g.i<=n & g.i is F_sigma ex G be Subset-Family of T st
G is closed & G is finite-ind & ind G<=n & G is countable &
Union g=union G
proof
let T be TopSpace;
let g be SetSequence of T such that
A1: for i be Nat holds g.i is finite-ind & ind g.i<=n & g.i is F_sigma;
defpred F[object,object] means
for n be Nat,F be Subset-Family of T st n=$1 & F=$2 holds union F=g.n & F is
closed countable;
A2: for x be object st x in NAT
ex y be object st y in bool bool the carrier of T & F[x,y]
proof
let x be object;
assume x in NAT;
then reconsider n=x as Element of NAT;
g.n is F_sigma by A1;
then consider y be closed countable Subset-Family of T such that
A3: g.n=union y by TOPGEN_4:def 6;
take y;
thus thesis by A3;
end;
consider f be SetSequence of bool (the carrier of T) qua set such that
A4: for x be object st x in NAT holds F[x,f.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 1(A2);
take F=Union f;
thus F is closed
proof
let A be Subset of T;
assume A in F;
then consider n be Nat such that
A5: A in f.n by PROB_1:12;
n in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
then f.n is closed by A4;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
for A be Subset of T st A in F holds A is finite-ind & ind A<=n
proof
let A be Subset of T;
assume A in F;
then consider i be Nat such that
A6: A in f.i by PROB_1:12;
i in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
then union(f.i)=g.i by A4;
then
A7: A c=g.i by A6,ZFMISC_1:74;
A8: ind g.i<=n by A1;
A9: g.i is finite-ind by A1;
then ind A<=ind g.i by A7,TOPDIM_1:19;
hence thesis by A7,A8,A9,TOPDIM_1:19,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
hence F is finite-ind & ind F<=n by TOPDIM_1:11;
for x be set st x in dom f holds f.x is countable by A4;
hence F is countable by CARD_4:11;
thus Union g c=union F
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Union g;
then consider i be Nat such that
A10: x in g.i by PROB_1:12;
i in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
then union(f.i)=g.i by A4;
then consider y be set such that
A11: x in y and
A12: y in f.i by A10,TARSKI:def 4;
y in F by A12,PROB_1:12;
hence thesis by A11,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
thus union F c=Union g
proof
let x be object;
assume x in union F;
then consider y be set such that
A13: x in y and
A14: y in F by TARSKI:def 4;
consider i be Nat such that
A15: y in f.i by A14,PROB_1:12;
i in NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
then union(f.i)=g.i by A4;
then x in g.i by A13,A15,TARSKI:def 4;
hence thesis by PROB_1:12;
end;
end;
Lm3: for T be metrizable TopSpace st T is second-countable holds((ex F be
Subset-Family of T st F is closed & F is Cover of T & F is countable & F is
finite-ind & ind F<=n) implies T is finite-ind & ind T<=n) &
(T is finite-ind & ind T<=n implies ex A,B be Subset of T st[#]T=A\/B
& A misses B & ind A<=n-1 & ind B<=0)
proof
defpred R[Nat] means
for T be metrizable TopSpace st T is second-countable & T is
finite-ind & ind T<=$1ex A,B be Subset of T st[#]T=A\/B & A misses B &
ind A<=$1-1 & ind B<=0;
defpred P[Nat] means
for T be metrizable TopSpace st T is second-countable & ex F be
Subset-Family of T st F is closed & F is Cover of T & F is countable & F is
finite-ind & ind F<=$1 holds T is finite-ind & ind T<=$1;
A1: for n st P[n] holds R[n+1]
proof
defpred P1[set] means not contradiction;
let n such that
A2: P[n];
let T be metrizable TopSpace such that
A3: T is second-countable and
A4: T is finite-ind and
A5: ind T<=n+1;
consider B be Basis of T such that
A6: for A be Subset of T st A in B holds Fr A is finite-ind & ind
Fr A<=n+1-1 by A4,A5,TOPDIM_1:31;
deffunc F(Subset of T)=Fr$1;
consider uB be Basis of T such that
A7: uB c=B and
A8: uB is countable by A3,METRIZTS:24;
defpred P[set] means $1 in uB & P1[$1];
consider S be Subset-Family of T such that
A9: S={F(b) where b is Subset of T:P[b]} from LMOD_7:sch 5;
set uS=union S;
set TS=T|uS;
A10: [#]TS=uS by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then reconsider S9=S as Subset-Family of TS by ZFMISC_1:82;
A11: T| (uS`) is second-countable by A3;
for a be Subset of TS st a in S9 holds a is finite-ind & ind a<=n
proof
let a be Subset of TS;
assume a in S9;
then consider b be Subset of T such that
A12: a=F(b) and
A13: P[b] by A9;
Fr b is finite-ind & ind Fr b<=n+1-1 by A6,A7,A13;
hence thesis by A12,TOPDIM_1:21;
end;
then
A14: S9 is finite-ind & ind S9<=n by TOPDIM_1:11;
A15: for p be Point of T,U be open Subset of T st p in U ex W be open Subset
of T st p in W & W c=U & uS`misses Fr W
proof
let p be Point of T,U be open Subset of T;
assume p in U;
then consider a be Subset of T such that
A16: a in uB and
A17: p in a & a c=U by YELLOW_9:31;
uB c=the topology of T by TOPS_2:64;
then reconsider a as open Subset of T by A16,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
take a;
F(a) in S by A9,A16;
then F(a)c=uS by ZFMISC_1:74;
hence thesis by A17,SUBSET_1:24;
end;
take uS,uS`;
A18: card{F(b) where b is Subset of T:b in uB & P1[b]}c=card uB from
BORSUK_2:sch 1;
card uB c=omega by A8;
then card S c=omega by A9,A18;
then
A19: S9 is countable;
A20: S9 is closed
proof
let a be Subset of TS;
assume a in S9;
then ex b be Subset of T st a=F(b) & P[b] by A9;
hence thesis by TSEP_1:8;
end;
S9 is Cover of TS by A10,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then ind TS<=n by A2,A3,A14,A19,A20;
hence thesis by A4,A11,A15,PRE_TOPC:2,SUBSET_1:23,TOPDIM_1:17,38;
end;
A21: P[0] by TOPDIM_1:36;
A22: for n st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A23: P[n];
let T be metrizable TopSpace such that
A24: T is second-countable;
given F be Subset-Family of T such that
A25: F is closed and
A26: F is Cover of T and
A27: F is countable and
A28: F is finite-ind & ind F<=n+1;
per cases;
suppose T is empty;
hence thesis by TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
suppose
A29: T is non empty;
set cT=the carrier of T;
A30: F is non empty by A26,A29,SETFAM_1:45,ZFMISC_1:2;
then consider f be sequence of F such that
A31: rng f=F by A27,CARD_3:96;
dom f=NAT by A30,FUNCT_2:def 1;
then reconsider f as SetSequence of T by A31,FUNCT_2:2;
consider g be SetSequence of T such that
A32: union rng f=union rng g and
A33: for i,j be Nat st i<>j holds g.i misses g.j and
A34: for n ex fn be finite Subset-Family of T st fn={f.i where i is
Element of NAT:i0;
then reconsider n1=n-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
(P[n1]) & n1+1=n by A108;
hence thesis by A1,A109,A110,A111;
end;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.3
theorem
for TM st TM is second-countable &
ex F st F is closed & F is Cover of TM & F is countable &
F is finite-ind & ind F <= n
holds TM is finite-ind & ind TM <= n by Lm3;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.5
theorem Th5:
for A,B be finite-ind Subset of TM st A is closed &
TM| (A\/B) is second-countable & ind A<=I & ind B<=I holds
ind(A\/B)<=I & A\/B is finite-ind
proof
let A,B be finite-ind Subset of TM such that
A1: A is closed and
A2: TM| (A\/B) is second-countable and
A3: ind A<=I and
A4: ind B<=I;
-1<=ind A by TOPDIM_1:5; then
A5: -1<=I by A3,XXREAL_0:2;
per cases;
suppose A\/B is empty;
hence thesis by A5,TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
suppose
A6: A\/B is non empty; then
A7: TM is non empty;
A is non empty or B is non empty by A6;
then 0<=ind A or 0<=ind B by A7;
then
A8: I in NAT by A3,A4,INT_1:3;
reconsider AB=A\/B as Subset of TM;
set Tab=TM|AB;
A9: [#]Tab=AB by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then reconsider a=A,b=B as Subset of Tab by XBOOLE_1:7;
A/\[#]Tab=a by XBOOLE_1:28;
then
A10: a is closed by A1,TSP_1:def 2;
then consider F be closed countable Subset-Family of Tab such that
A11: a`=union F by TOPGEN_4:def 6;
reconsider a,b as finite-ind Subset of Tab by TOPDIM_1:21;
reconsider AA={a} as Subset-Family of Tab;
union(AA\/F)=union AA\/union F by ZFMISC_1:78
.=a\/a` by A11,ZFMISC_1:25
.=[#]Tab by PRE_TOPC:2;
then
A12: AA\/F is Cover of Tab by SETFAM_1:def 11;
AA is closed
by A10,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A13: AA\/F is closed by TOPS_2:16;
for D be Subset of Tab st D in AA\/F holds D is finite-ind&ind D<=I
proof
let D be Subset of Tab such that
A14: D in AA\/F;
per cases by A14,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose D in AA;
then D=a by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A3,TOPDIM_1:21;
end;
suppose
A15: D in F;
a`=b\a by A9,XBOOLE_1:40;
then
A16: a`c=b by XBOOLE_1:36;
D c=a` by A11,A15,ZFMISC_1:74;
then
A17: D c=b by A16;
then ind b=ind B & ind D<=ind b by TOPDIM_1:19,21;
hence thesis by A4,A17,TOPDIM_1:19,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
end;
then
A18: AA\/F is finite-ind & ind(AA\/F)<=I by A5,TOPDIM_1:11;
A19: AA\/F is countable by CARD_2:85;
then Tab is finite-ind by A2,A8,A12,A13,A18,Lm3;
then
A20: A\/B is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:18;
ind Tab<=I by A2,A8,A12,A13,A18,A19,Lm3;
hence thesis by A20,TOPDIM_1:17;
end;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.7 "=>"
theorem
for TM st TM is second-countable & TM is finite-ind & ind TM<=n
ex A,B st [#]TM = A\/B & A misses B & ind A <= n-1 & ind B <= 0 by Lm3;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.8 "=>"
theorem Th7:
for TM st TM is second-countable finite-ind & ind TM <= I
ex F st F is Cover of TM & F is finite-ind & ind F <= 0 & card F <= I+1
& for A,B st A in F & B in F & A meets B holds A = B
proof
defpred P[Nat] means
for TM st TM is second-countable finite-ind & ind TM<=$1-1
ex F be finite Subset-Family of TM st
F is Cover of TM & F is finite-ind &
ind F<=0 & card F<=$1 & for A,B be Subset of TM st
A in F & B in F & A meets B holds A=B;
let TM such that
A1: TM is second-countable finite-ind and
A2: ind TM<=I;
-1<=ind[#]TM by A1,TOPDIM_1:5;
then -1<=I by A2,XXREAL_0:2;
then -1+1<=I+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then reconsider i1=I+1 as Element of NAT by INT_1:3;
A3: for n st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A4: P[n];
let TM such that
A5: TM is second-countable and
A6: TM is finite-ind and
A7: ind TM<=n+1-1;
consider A,B be Subset of TM such that
A8: [#]TM=A\/B and
A9: A misses B and
A10: ind A<=n-1 and
A11: ind B<=0 by A5,A6,A7,Lm3;
set BB={B};
for b be Subset of TM st b in BB holds b is finite-ind & ind b<=0
by A6,A11,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A12: BB is finite-ind & ind BB<=0 by TOPDIM_1:11;
set TA=TM|A;
ind TA=ind A by A6,TOPDIM_1:17;
then consider F be finite Subset-Family of TA such that
A13: F is Cover of TA and
A14: F is finite-ind and
A15: ind F<=0 and
A16: card F<=n and
A17: for A,B be Subset of TA st A in F & B in F & A meets B holds A=B by A4,A5
,A6,A10;
[#]TA c=[#]TM by PRE_TOPC:def 4;
then bool[#]TA c=bool[#]TM by ZFMISC_1:67;
then reconsider F9=F as finite Subset-Family of TM by XBOOLE_1:1;
take G=F9\/BB;
A18: union F9=[#]TA by A13,SETFAM_1:45
.=A by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then union G=A\/union BB by ZFMISC_1:78
.=[#]TM by A8,ZFMISC_1:25;
hence G is Cover of TM by SETFAM_1:def 11;
F9 is finite-ind & ind F9=ind F by A14,TOPDIM_1:29;
hence G is finite-ind & ind G<=0 by A12,A15,TOPDIM_1:13;
card BB=1 by CARD_1:30;
then
A19: card G<=card F9+1 by CARD_2:43;
card F9+1<=n+1 by A16,XREAL_1:6;
hence card G<=n+1 by A19,XXREAL_0:2;
let a,b be Subset of TM such that
A20: a in G & b in G and
A21: a meets b;
per cases by A20,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose a in F & b in F;
hence thesis by A17,A21;
end;
suppose
A22: a in F & b in BB;
then b=B by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A9,A18,A21,A22,XBOOLE_1:63,ZFMISC_1:74;
end;
suppose
A23: a in BB & b in F;
then a=B by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A9,A18,A21,A23,XBOOLE_1:63,ZFMISC_1:74;
end;
suppose
A24: a in BB & b in BB;
then a=B by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A24,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
end;
A25: P[0]
proof
let TM such that
TM is second-countable and
A26: TM is finite-ind and
A27: ind TM<=0-1;
ind[#]TM>=-1 by A26,TOPDIM_1:5;
then ind[#]TM=-1 by A27,XXREAL_0:1;
then
A28: [#]TM={}TM by A26,TOPDIM_1:6;
reconsider F={} as empty Subset-Family of TM by TOPGEN_4:18;
take F;
F c={{}TM};
hence thesis by A28,SETFAM_1:def 11,TOPDIM_1:10,ZFMISC_1:2;
end;
for n holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A25,A3);
then P[i1];
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.8 "<="
theorem Th8:
for TM st TM is second-countable &
ex F st F is Cover of TM & F is finite-ind & ind F<=0 & card F <= I+1
holds TM is finite-ind & ind TM <= I
proof
defpred P[Nat] means
for TM st TM is second-countable & ex F be finite Subset-Family of TM st F
is Cover of TM & F is finite-ind & ind F<=0 & card F<=$1 holds TM is
finite-ind & ind TM<=$1-1;
let TM such that
A1: TM is second-countable;
given F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A2: F is Cover of TM & F is finite-ind & ind F<=0 and
A3: card F<=I+1;
reconsider i1=I+1 as Element of NAT by A3,INT_1:3;
A4: P[0]
proof
let TM such that
TM is second-countable;
given F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A5: F is Cover of TM and
F is finite-ind and
ind F<=0 and
A6: card F<=0;
F={} by A6;
then [#]TM={} by A5,SETFAM_1:45,ZFMISC_1:2;
hence thesis by TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
A7: for n st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A8: P[n];
let TM such that
A9: TM is second-countable;
given F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A10: F is Cover of TM and
A11: F is finite-ind and
A12: ind F<=0 and
A13: card F<=n+1;
per cases;
suppose F={};
then card F=0;
hence thesis by A4,A9,A10,A11,A12;
end;
suppose F<>{};
then consider A be object such that
A14: A in F by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider A as Subset of TM by A14;
set AA={A};
set FA=F\AA;
A15: FA\/AA=F by A14,ZFMISC_1:116;
A16: [#]TM=union F by A10,SETFAM_1:45
.=union FA\/union AA by A15,ZFMISC_1:78
.=union FA\/A by ZFMISC_1:25;
A17: FA c=F by XBOOLE_1:36;
then
A18: ind FA<=0 by A11,A12,TOPDIM_1:12;
not A in FA by ZFMISC_1:56;
then FA c finite-ind for Subset of TM;
coherence
proof
TM| (A\/B) is second-countable;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.10
theorem
A is finite-ind & B is finite-ind & TM| (A\/B) is second-countable
implies A\/B is finite-ind & ind(A\/B) <= ind A+ind B+1 by Lm4;
theorem Th10:
for T1,T2 be TopSpace,A1 be Subset of T1,A2 be Subset of T2 holds
Fr [:A1,A2:] = [:Fr A1,Cl A2:] \/ [:Cl A1,Fr A2:]
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace,A1 be Subset of T1,A2 be Subset of T2;
A1: [:Cl A1,Cl A2:]/\[:Cl A1`,[#]T2:]=[:(Cl A1)/\(Cl A1`),(Cl A2)/\[#]T2:] by
ZFMISC_1:100
.=[:Fr A1,Cl A2:] by XBOOLE_1:28;
A2: [:Cl A1,Cl A2:]/\[:[#]T1,Cl A2`:]=[:(Cl A1)/\[#]T1,(Cl A2)/\(Cl A2`):] by
ZFMISC_1:100
.=[:Cl A1,Fr A2:] by XBOOLE_1:28;
Cl[#]T1=[#]T1 by TOPS_1:2;
then
A3: Cl[:[#]T1,A2`:]=[:[#]T1,Cl A2`:] by TOPALG_3:14;
Cl[#]T2=[#]T2 by TOPS_1:2;
then
A4: Cl[:A1`,[#]T2:]=[:Cl A1`,[#]T2:] by TOPALG_3:14;
Cl[:A1,A2:]`=Cl([:[#]T1,[#]T2:]\[:A1,A2:]) by BORSUK_1:def 2
.=Cl([:[#]T1\A1,[#]T2:]\/[:[#]T1,[#]T2\A2:]) by ZFMISC_1:103
.=[:Cl A1`,[#]T2:]\/[:[#]T1,Cl A2`:] by A4,A3,PRE_TOPC:20;
hence Fr[:A1,A2:]=[:Cl A1,Cl A2:]/\([:Cl A1`,[#]T2:]\/[:[#]T1,Cl A2`:])
by TOPALG_3:14
.=[:Fr A1,Cl A2:]\/[:Cl A1,Fr A2:] by A1,A2,XBOOLE_1:23;
end;
Lm5: TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty implies
[:TM1,TM2:] is finite-ind & ind [:TM1,TM2:]<=ind TM1+ind TM2
proof
defpred P[Nat] means for TM1,TM2 st
(TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty) & ind TM1+ind TM2+2<=$1
holds [:TM1,TM2:] is finite-ind & ind[:TM1,TM2:]<=ind TM1+ind TM2;
reconsider i1=ind TM1+1,i2=ind TM2+1 as Nat by Lm1;
A1: for n st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A2: P[n];
let TM1,TM2;
assume that
A3: TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty and
A4: ind TM1+ind TM2+2<=n+1;
set T12=[:TM1,TM2:];
per cases;
suppose
A5: TM1 is empty;
then ind TM1=-1 by TOPDIM_1:6;
then 0+-1<=ind TM2+ind TM1 by A3,XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A5,TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
suppose
A6: TM2 is empty;
then ind TM2=-1 by TOPDIM_1:6;
then 0+-1<=ind TM1+ind TM2 by A3,XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A6,TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
suppose
A7: TM1 is non empty & TM2 is non empty;
then reconsider i1=ind TM1,i2=ind TM2 as Nat by TARSKI:1;
A8: for p be Point of T12,U be open Subset of T12 st p in U
ex W be open Subset of T12 st p in W & W c=U & Fr W is finite-ind &
ind Fr W<=i1+i2-1
proof
let p be Point of T12,U be open Subset of T12;
consider F be Subset-Family of T12 such that
A9: U=union F and
A10: for e be set st e in F ex X1 be Subset of TM1,X2 be Subset of TM2 st
e=[:X1,X2:] & X1 is open & X2 is open by BORSUK_1:5;
assume p in U;
then consider U12 be set such that
A11: p in U12 and
A12: U12 in F by A9,TARSKI:def 4;
A13: U12 c=U by A9,A12,ZFMISC_1:74;
consider U1 be Subset of TM1,U2 be Subset of TM2 such that
A14: U12=[:U1,U2:] and
A15: U1 is open and
A16: U2 is open by A10,A12;
consider p1,p2 be object such that
A17: p1 in U1 and
A18: p2 in U2 and
A19: p=[p1,p2] by A11,A14,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
reconsider p1 as Point of TM1 by A17;
consider W1 be open Subset of TM1 such that
A20: p1 in W1 and
A21: W1 c=U1 and
Fr W1 is finite-ind and
A22: ind Fr W1<=i1-1 by A15,A17,TOPDIM_1:16;
set ClW1=Cl W1;
A23: ind(TM1|ClW1)=ind Cl W1 & ind Cl W1<=i1 by TOPDIM_1:17,19;
reconsider p2 as Point of TM2 by A18;
consider W2 be open Subset of TM2 such that
A24: p2 in W2 and
A25: W2 c=U2 and
Fr W2 is finite-ind and
A26: ind Fr W2<=i2-1 by A16,A18,TOPDIM_1:16;
reconsider W12=[:W1,W2:] as open Subset of T12 by BORSUK_1:6;
take W12;
W12 c=U12 by A14,A25,A21,ZFMISC_1:96;
hence p in W12 & W12 c=U by A13,A19,A24,A20,ZFMISC_1:87;
i1+i2+1+1<=n+1 by A4;
then
A27: i1+i2+1<=n by XREAL_1:6;
set FrW1=Fr W1;
A28: ind(TM1|FrW1)=ind Fr W1 by TOPDIM_1:17;
set ClW2=Cl W2;
reconsider F1C2=[:Fr W1,Cl W2:] as Subset of T12;
A29: [:TM1|FrW1,TM2|ClW2:]=T12|F1C2 by BORSUK_3:22;
ind(TM2|ClW2)=ind Cl W2 & ind Cl W2<=i2 by TOPDIM_1:17,19;
then
A30: ind(TM1|FrW1)+ind(TM2|ClW2)<=i1-1+i2 by A22,A28,XREAL_1:7;
then ind(TM1|FrW1)+ind(TM2|ClW2)+2<=i1+i2-1+2 by XREAL_1:6;
then
A31: W2 c=Cl W2 & ind(TM1|FrW1)+ind(TM2|ClW2)+2<=n by A27,PRE_TOPC:18
,XXREAL_0:2;
then [:TM1|FrW1,TM2|ClW2:] is finite-ind by A2,A7,A24;
then
A32: F1C2 is finite-ind by A29,TOPDIM_1:18;
set FrW2=Fr W2;
reconsider C1F2=[:Cl W1,Fr W2:] as Subset of T12;
A33: [:TM1|ClW1,TM2|FrW2:]=T12|C1F2 by BORSUK_3:22;
ind(TM2|FrW2)=ind Fr W2 by TOPDIM_1:17;
then
A34: ind(TM1|ClW1)+ind(TM2|FrW2)<=i1+(i2-1) by A26,A23,XREAL_1:7;
then ind(TM1|ClW1)+ind(TM2|FrW2)+2<=i1+(i2-1)+2 by XREAL_1:6;
then
A35: ind(TM1|ClW1)+ind(TM2|FrW2)+2<=n by A27,XXREAL_0:2;
W1 c=Cl W1 & [#](TM1|ClW1)=ClW1 by PRE_TOPC:18,def 5;
then
A36: TM1|ClW1 is non empty by A20;
then [:TM1|ClW1,TM2|FrW2:] is finite-ind by A2,A35;
then
A37: C1F2 is finite-ind by A33,TOPDIM_1:18;
ind[:TM1|ClW1,TM2|FrW2:]<=ind TM1|ClW1+ind TM2|FrW2 by A2,A35,A36;
then ind[:TM1|ClW1,TM2|FrW2:]<=i1+i2-1 by A34,XXREAL_0:2;
then
A38: ind C1F2<=i1+i2-1 by A33,A37,TOPDIM_1:17;
A39: F1C2 is closed & T12| (C1F2\/F1C2) is second-countable by TOPALG_3:15;
ind[:TM1|FrW1,TM2|ClW2:]<=ind TM1|FrW1+ind TM2|ClW2 by A2,A7,A24,A31;
then ind[:TM1|FrW1,TM2|ClW2:]<=i1-1+i2 by A30,XXREAL_0:2;
then ind F1C2<=i1+i2-1 by A29,A32,TOPDIM_1:17;
then C1F2\/F1C2 is finite-ind & ind(C1F2\/F1C2)<=i1+i2-1
by A39,A32,A37,A38,Th5;
hence thesis by Th10;
end;
then T12 is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:15;
hence thesis by A8,TOPDIM_1:16;
end;
end;
A40: P[0]
proof
let TM1,TM2;
assume that A41: TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty and
A42: ind TM1+ind TM2+2<=0;
reconsider i1=ind TM1+1,i2=ind TM2+1 as Nat by Lm1;
i1+i2<=0 by A42;
hence thesis by A41;
end;
A43: for n holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A40,A1);
ind TM1+ind TM2+2=i1+i2;
hence thesis by A43;
end;
registration
let TM1,TM2;
cluster [:TM1,TM2:] -> finite-ind;
coherence
proof
per cases;
suppose TM1 is empty & TM2 is empty;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty;
hence thesis by Lm5;
end;
end;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.12
theorem Th11:
for A,B st A is closed & B is closed & A misses B
for H st ind H<=n & TM|H is second-countable finite-ind
ex L st L separates A,B & ind(L/\H) <= n-1
proof
let A,B such that
A1: A is closed & B is closed and
A2: A misses B;
let H such that
A3: ind H<=n and
A4: TM|H is second-countable finite-ind;
H is finite-ind by A4,TOPDIM_1:18;
then ind H=ind(TM|H) by TOPDIM_1:17;
then consider a,b be Subset of TM|H such that
A5: [#](TM|H)=a\/b and
a misses b and
A6: ind a<=n-1 and
A7: ind b<=0 by A3,A4,Lm3;
[#](TM|H)c=[#]TM by PRE_TOPC:def 4;
then reconsider aa=a,bb=b as Subset of TM by XBOOLE_1:1;
A8: bb is finite-ind by A4,TOPDIM_1:22;
A9: H=aa\/bb by A5,PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then
A10: bb/\H=bb by XBOOLE_1:7,28;
ind b=ind bb & TM|H|b=TM|bb by A4,METRIZTS:9,TOPDIM_1:22;
then consider L be Subset of TM such that
A11: L separates A,B and
A12: L misses bb by A1,A2,A4,A7,A8,TOPDIM_1:37;
take L;
L/\H misses bb & L/\H c= H by A10,A12,XBOOLE_1:17,76;
then aa is finite-ind & L/\H c=aa by A4,A9,TOPDIM_1:22,XBOOLE_1:73;
then ind a=ind aa & ind(L/\H)<=ind aa by TOPDIM_1:19,21;
hence thesis by A6,A11,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.13
theorem
for TM st TM is finite-ind second-countable & ind TM<=n
for A,B st A is closed & B is closed & A misses B
ex L st L separates A,B & ind L<=n-1
proof
let TM such that
A1: TM is finite-ind second-countable and
A2: ind TM<=n;
A3: TM| ([#]TM) is second-countable by A1;
let A,B such that
A4: A is closed & B is closed and
A5: A misses B;
consider L be Subset of TM such that
A6: L separates A,B & ind(L/\[#]TM)<=n-1 by A4,A1,A2,A3,A5,Th11;
take L;
thus thesis by A6,XBOOLE_1:28;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.14
theorem Th13:
for H st TM|H is second-countable holds H is
finite-ind & ind H<=n iff for p,U st p in U
ex W st p in W & W c=U & H/\Fr W is finite-ind & ind(H/\Fr W)<=n-1
proof
let M be Subset of TM such that
A1: TM|M is second-countable;
hereby
assume that
A2: M is finite-ind and
A3: ind M<=n;
let p be Point of TM,U be open Subset of TM such that
A4: p in U;
reconsider P={p} as Subset of TM by A4,ZFMISC_1:31;
TM is non empty & not p in U` by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then consider L be Subset of TM such that
A5: L separates P,U` and
A6: ind(L/\M)<=n-1 by A1,A2,A3,Th11,ZFMISC_1:50;
consider W,W1 be open Subset of TM such that
A7: P c=W and
A8: U`c=W1 and
A9: W misses W1 and
A10: L=(W\/W1)` by A5,METRIZTS:def 3;
take W;
W c=W1` & W1`c=U`` by A8,A9,SUBSET_1:12,23;
hence p in W & W c=U by A7,ZFMISC_1:31;
Cl W misses W1 by A9,TSEP_1:36;
then Cl W\W1=Cl W by XBOOLE_1:83;
then Fr W=(Cl W\W1)\W by TOPS_1:42
.=Cl W\(W\/W1) by XBOOLE_1:41
.=Cl W/\L by A10,SUBSET_1:13;
then Fr W c=L by XBOOLE_1:17;
then
A11: M/\Fr W c=M/\L by XBOOLE_1:27;
M/\L c=M by XBOOLE_1:17;
then
A12: M/\L is finite-ind by A2,TOPDIM_1:19;
then ind(M/\Fr W)<=ind(M/\L) by A11,TOPDIM_1:19;
hence M/\Fr W is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1 by A6,A11,A12,TOPDIM_1:19
,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
set Tm=TM|M;
assume
A13: for p be Point of TM,U be open Subset of TM st p in U ex W be
open Subset of TM st p in W & W c=U & M/\Fr W is finite-ind &
ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1;
A14: for p be Point of Tm,U be open Subset of Tm st p in U ex W be open
Subset of Tm st p in W & W c=U & Fr W is finite-ind & ind Fr W<=n-1
proof
A15: [#]Tm=M by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
let p be Point of Tm,U be open Subset of Tm such that
A16: p in U;
p in M by A15,A16;
then reconsider p9=p as Point of TM;
consider U9 be Subset of TM such that
A17: U9 is open and
A18: U=U9/\the carrier of Tm by TSP_1:def 1;
p9 in U9 by A16,A18,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider W9 be open Subset of TM such that
A19: p9 in W9 & W9 c=U9 and
A20: M/\Fr W9 is finite-ind and
A21: ind(M/\Fr W9)<=n-1 by A13,A17;
reconsider W=W9/\the carrier of Tm as Subset of Tm by XBOOLE_1:17;
reconsider W as open Subset of Tm by TSP_1:def 1;
take W;
thus p in W & W c=U by A16,A18,A19,XBOOLE_0:def 4,XBOOLE_1:26;
reconsider FrW=Fr W as Subset of TM by A15,XBOOLE_1:1;
A22: FrW c=Fr W9/\M by A15,TOPDIM_1:1;
then
A23: FrW is finite-ind by A20,TOPDIM_1:19;
ind FrW<=ind(Fr W9/\M) by A20,A22,TOPDIM_1:19;
then ind Fr W<=ind(Fr W9/\M) by A23,TOPDIM_1:21;
hence thesis by A21,A23,TOPDIM_1:21,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
then
A24: Tm is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:15;
then
A25: M is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:18;
ind Tm<=n by A14,A24,TOPDIM_1:16;
hence thesis by A25,TOPDIM_1:17;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.15
theorem
for H st TM|H is second-countable holds H is
finite-ind & ind H<=n iff ex Bas be Basis of TM st
for A st A in Bas holds H/\Fr A is finite-ind & ind(H/\Fr A)<=n-1
proof
set cTM=[#]TM;
set TOP=the topology of TM;
let M be Subset of TM such that
A1: TM|M is second-countable;
hereby
defpred P[object,object] means
for p be Point of TM,A be Subset of TM st$1=[p,A] holds$2 in TOP & (not p
in A implies $2={}TM) & (p in A implies ex W be open Subset of TM st W=$2 & p
in W & W c=A & M/\Fr W is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1);
assume
A2: M is finite-ind & ind M<=n;
A3: for x be object st x in [:cTM,TOP:]ex y be object st P[x,y]
proof
let x be object such that
A4: x in [:cTM,TOP:];
consider p9,A9 be object such that
A5: p9 in cTM and
A6: A9 in TOP and
A7: x=[p9,A9] by A4,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
reconsider A9 as open Subset of TM by A6,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
reconsider p9 as Point of TM by A5;
per cases;
suppose
A8: not p9 in A9;
take{}TM;
let p be Point of TM,A be Subset of TM such that
A9: x=[p,A];
p=p9 by A7,A9,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A7,A8,A9,PRE_TOPC:def 2,XTUPLE_0:1;
end;
suppose p9 in A9;
then consider W be open Subset of TM such that
A10: p9 in W & W c=A9 & M/\Fr W is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-
1 by A1,A2,Th13;
take W;
let p be Point of TM,A be Subset of TM such that
A11: x=[p,A];
p=p9 & A=A9 by A7,A11,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A10,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
end;
end;
consider f be Function such that
A12: dom f=[:cTM,TOP:] and
A13: for x be object st x in [:cTM,TOP:] holds P[x,f.x]
from CLASSES1:sch 1(A3);
A14: rng f c=TOP
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng f;
then consider x be object such that
A15: x in dom f and
A16: f.x=y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
ex p,A be object st p in cTM & A in TOP & x=[p,A]
by A12,A15,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
hence thesis by A12,A13,A15,A16;
end;
then reconsider RNG=rng f as Subset-Family of TM by XBOOLE_1:1;
now
let A be Subset of TM such that
A17: A is open;
A18: A in TOP by A17,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
let p be Point of TM such that
A19: p in A;
A20: [p,A] in [:cTM,TOP:] by A18,A19,ZFMISC_1:87;
then consider W be open Subset of TM such that
A21: W=f.[p,A] & p in W & W c=A and
M/\Fr W is finite-ind and
ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1 by A13,A19;
reconsider W as Subset of TM;
take W;
thus W in RNG & p in W & W c=A by A12,A20,A21,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
then reconsider RNG as Basis of TM by A14,YELLOW_9:32;
take RNG;
let B be Subset of TM;
assume B in RNG;
then consider x be object such that
A22: x in dom f and
A23: f.x=B by FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider p,A be object such that
A24: p in cTM and
A25: A in TOP and
A26: x=[p,A] by A12,A22,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
reconsider A as open Subset of TM by A25,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
per cases;
suppose p in A;
then ex W be open Subset of TM st W=f.[p,A] & p in W & W c=A & M/\Fr W is
finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1 by A12,A13,A22,A26;
hence M/\Fr B is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr B)<=n-1 by A23,A26;
end;
suppose not p in A;
then B={}TM by A12,A13,A22,A23,A24,A26;
then
A27: Fr B={} by TOPGEN_1:14;
0-1<=n-1 by XREAL_1:9;
hence M/\Fr B is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr B)<=n-1 by A27,TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
end;
given B be Basis of TM such that
A28: for A be Subset of TM st A in B holds M/\Fr A is finite-ind &
ind(M/\Fr A)<=n-1;
for p be Point of TM,U be open Subset of TM st p in U ex W be open Subset of
TM st p in W & W c=U & M/\Fr W is finite-ind & ind(M/\Fr W)<=n-1
proof
let p be Point of TM,U be open Subset of TM such that
A29: p in U;
consider a be Subset of TM such that
A30: a in B and
A31: p in a & a c=U by A29,YELLOW_9:31;
B c=TOP by TOPS_2:64;
then reconsider a as open Subset of TM by A30,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
take a;
thus thesis by A28,A30,A31;
end;
hence thesis by A1,Th13;
end;
::Teoria wymiaru Th 1.5.16
theorem
TM1 is non empty or TM2 is non empty implies
ind [:TM1,TM2:] <= ind TM1+ind TM2 by Lm5;
:: Wprowadzenie do topologii 3.4.10
theorem
ind TM2 = 0 implies ind [:TM1,TM2:] = ind TM1
proof
assume
A1: ind TM2=0;
then A2: TM2 is non empty by TOPDIM_1:6;
then
A3: ind[:TM1,TM2:]<=ind TM1+0 by A1,Lm5;
set x=the Point of TM2;
reconsider X={x} as Subset of TM2 by A2,ZFMISC_1:31;
per cases;
suppose
A4: TM1 is empty;
then ind TM1=-1 by TOPDIM_1:6;
hence thesis by A4,TOPDIM_1:6;
end;
suppose
TM1 is non empty;
then ind[:TM2|X,TM1:]=ind TM1 by A2,BORSUK_3:13,TOPDIM_1:25;
then
A5: ind[:TM1,TM2|X:]=ind TM1 by TOPDIM_1:28;
A6: [:TM1,TM2|X:] is SubSpace of[:TM1,TM2:] by BORSUK_3:15;
then [#][:TM1,TM2|X:]c=[#][:TM1,TM2:] by PRE_TOPC:def 4;
then reconsider cT12=[#][:TM1,TM2|X:] as Subset of[:TM1,TM2:];
[:TM1,TM2|X:]=[:TM1,TM2:]|cT12 by A6,PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then ind cT12=ind TM1 by A5,TOPDIM_1:17;
then ind TM1<=ind[:TM1,TM2:] by TOPDIM_1:19;
hence thesis by A3,XXREAL_0:1;
end;
end;
begin :: The Small Inductive Dimension of Euclidean Spaces
reserve u for Point of Euclid 1,
U for Point of TOP-REAL 1,
r,u1 for Real,
s for Real;
theorem Th17:
<*u1*> = u implies cl_Ball(u,r)={<*s*>:u1-r <= s & s <= u1+r}
proof
assume that
A1: <*u1*>=u;
set E1={q where q is Element of Euclid 1:dist(u,q)<=r};
reconsider u1 as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
set R1={<*s*> where s is Real:u1-r<=s & s<=u1+r};
A2: E1 c=R1
proof
let x be object;
assume x in E1;
then consider q being Element of Euclid 1 such that
A3: x=q and
A4: dist(u,q)<=r;
q is Tuple of 1, REAL by FINSEQ_2:131;
then consider s1 be Element of REAL such that
A5: q=<*s1*> by FINSEQ_2:97;
<*u1*>-<*s1*>=<*u1-s1*> by RVSUM_1:29;
then sqr(<*u1*>-<*s1*>)=<*(u1-s1)^2*> by RVSUM_1:55;
then Sum sqr(<*u1*>-<*s1*>)=(u1-s1)^2 by RVSUM_1:73;
then
A6: sqrt Sum sqr(<*u1*>-<*s1*>)=|.u1-s1.| by COMPLEX1:72;
A7: |.<*u1*>-<*s1*>.|<=r by A1,A4,A5,EUCLID:def 6;
then u1-s1<=r by A6,ABSVALUE:5;
then u1-s1+s1<=r+s1 by XREAL_1:6;
then
A8: u1-r<=r+s1-r by XREAL_1:9;
-r<=u1-s1 by A6,A7,ABSVALUE:5;
then -r+s1<=u1-s1+s1 by XREAL_1:6;
then s1-r+r<=u1+r by XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A3,A5,A8;
end;
R1 c=E1
proof
reconsider eu1=<*u1*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:98;
let x be object;
assume x in R1;
then consider s be Real such that
A9: x=<*s*> and
A10: u1-r<=s and
A11: s<=u1+r;
s-r<=u1+r-r by A11,XREAL_1:9;
then
A12: s+-r-s<=u1-s by XREAL_1:9;
reconsider s as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
reconsider es=<*s*> as Element of REAL 1 by FINSEQ_2:98;
reconsider q1=<*s*> as Element of Euclid 1 by FINSEQ_2:98;
<*u1*>-<*s*>=<*u1-s*> by RVSUM_1:29;
then sqr(<*u1*>-<*s*>)=<*(u1-s)^2*> by RVSUM_1:55;
then
A13: Sum sqr(<*u1*>-<*s*>)=(u1-s)^2 by RVSUM_1:73;
u1-r+r<=s+r by A10,XREAL_1:6;
then u1-s<=s+r-s by XREAL_1:9;
then |.u1-s.|<=r by A12,ABSVALUE:5;
then |.<*u1*>-<*s*>.|<=r by A13,COMPLEX1:72;
then (the distance of Euclid 1).(u,q1)=dist(u,q1) & (Pitag_dist 1).(eu1,es)
<=r by EUCLID:def 6;
hence thesis by A1,A9;
end;
then E1=R1 by A2;
hence thesis by METRIC_1:18;
end;
Lm6: the TopStruct of TOP-REAL 1 = TopSpaceMetr Euclid 1 by EUCLID:def 8;
theorem Th18:
<*u1*> = U & r > 0 implies Fr Ball(U,r) = {<*u1-r*>,<*u1+r*>}
proof
assume that
A1: <*u1*>=U and
A2: r>0;
reconsider u=U as Point of Euclid 1 by Lm6;
A3: Ball(u,r)={<*s*>:u1-r~~:u1-r<=s & s<=u1+r} by A1,Th17;
thus Fr Ball(U,r)c={<*u1-r*>,<*u1+r*>}
proof
let x be object such that
A6: x in Fr Ball(U,r);
reconsider X=x as Point of Euclid 1 by Lm6,A6;
x in cl_Ball(u,r) by A4,A6,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then consider s be Real such that
A7: x=<*s*> and
A8: u1-r<=s and
A9: s<=u1+r by A5;
assume
A10: not x in {<*u1-r*>,<*u1+r*>};
then s<>u1+r by A7,TARSKI:def 2;
then
A11: su1-r by A7,A10,TARSKI:def 2;
then u1-r~~~~,<*u1+r*>};
then
A12: x=<*u1-r*> or x=<*u1+r*> by TARSKI:def 2;
assume
A13: not x in Fr Ball(U,r);
u1+-r<=u1+r by A2,XREAL_1:6;
then x in cl_Ball(u,r) by A5,A12;
then x in Ball(u,r) by A4,A13,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then ex s be Real st x=<*s*> & u1-r~~~~ finite-ind for Subset of TM;
coherence
proof
let A be Subset of TM such that
A1: A is countable;
TM|A is T_4;
hence thesis by A1,Th19;
end;
end;
Lm7:TOP-REAL 0 is finite-ind & ind TOP-REAL 0=0
proof
set T=TOP-REAL 0;
the TopStruct of T = TopSpaceMetr Euclid 0 by EUCLID:def 8; then
A1: [#]T={<*>REAL} by FINSEQ_2:94;
card{<*>REAL}=1 by CARD_1:30;
then ind[#]T<1 by A1,TOPDIM_1:8;
hence thesis by A1,NAT_1:25;
end;
Lm8: TOP-REAL 1 is finite-ind & ind TOP-REAL 1=1
proof
set T=TOP-REAL 1;
A1: for p be Point of T,U be open Subset of T st p in U ex W be open Subset
of T st p in W & W c=U & Fr W is finite-ind & ind Fr W<=1-1
proof
let p be Point of T,U be open Subset of T such that
A2: p in U;
reconsider p9=p as Point of Euclid 1 by Lm6;
set M = Euclid 1;
A3: the TopStruct of TopSpaceMetr(M) = the TopStruct of TOP-REAL 1
by EUCLID:def 8; then
reconsider V = U as Subset of TopSpaceMetr(M);
V is open by A3,PRE_TOPC:30; then
consider r be Real such that
A4: r>0 and
A5: Ball(p9,r)c=U by A2,TOPMETR:15;
reconsider B=Ball(p9,r) as open Subset of T by KURATO_2:1;
take B;
p9 is Tuple of 1, REAL by FINSEQ_2:131;
then consider p1 be Element of REAL such that
A6: p9=<*p1*> by FINSEQ_2:97;
A7: Ball(p,r)=Ball(p9,r) by TOPREAL9:13;
then A8: Fr B={<*p1-r*>,<*p1+r*>} by A4,A6,Th18;
T is metrizable
by A3,PCOMPS_1:def 8; then
T| (Fr B) is metrizable;
hence thesis by A4,A5,A7,Th19,A8,JORDAN:16;
end;
then
A9: T is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:15;
A10: ind T>=1
proof
reconsider jj=1 as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
reconsider p=<*In(0,REAL)*>,q=<*jj*> as Point of Euclid 1 by FINSEQ_2:98;
the TopStruct of T = TopSpaceMetr Euclid 1 by EUCLID:def 8; then
reconsider p9=p as Point of T;
A11: Ball(p,1)=Ball(p9,1) by TOPREAL9:13;
then reconsider B=Ball(p9,1) as open Subset of T by KURATO_2:1;
assume ind T<1;
then ind T<1+0;
then
A12: ind T<=0 by INT_1:7;
p in B by JORDAN:16;
then consider W be open Subset of T such that
A13: p in W and
A14: W c=B and
A15: Fr W is finite-ind & ind Fr W<=0-1 by A9,A12,TOPDIM_1:16;
Fr W={}T by A15;
then
A16: W is closed by TOPGEN_1:14;
A17: W\/W`=[#]T by PRE_TOPC:2;
W misses W` by SUBSET_1:24;
then [#]T is convex & W,W`are_separated
by A16,CONNSP_1:2; then
A18: W`={}T by A13,A17,CONNSP_1:15;
A19: B={<*s*> where s is Real:0-1~~~~ & 0-1~~~~ finite-ind;
coherence by Lm9;
end;
theorem
n <= 1 implies ind TOP-REAL n = n
proof
assume n<=1;
then n < 1 or n=1 by XXREAL_0:1;
then n=0 or n=1 by NAT_1:14;
hence thesis by Lm7,Lm8;
end;
theorem
ind TOP-REAL n <= n by Lm9;
Lm10: for A be finite-ind Subset of TM st TM|A is second-countable &
ind TM|A<=0 for U1,U2 be open Subset of TM st A c=U1\/U2 ex V1,V2 be open
Subset of TM st V1 c=U1 & V2 c=U2 & V1 misses V2 & A c=V1\/V2
proof
let A be finite-ind Subset of TM such that
A1: TM|A is second-countable & ind TM|A<=0;
let U1,U2 be open Subset of TM such that
A2: A c=U1\/U2;
set U12=U1\/U2;
set TU=TM|U12;
A3: [#]TU=U12 by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then reconsider u1=U1,u2=U2,a=A as Subset of TU by A2,XBOOLE_1:7;
A4: a is finite-ind by TOPDIM_1:21;
A5: u1`misses u2`
proof
assume u1`meets u2`;
then consider z be object such that
A6: z in u1` and
A7: z in u2` by XBOOLE_0:3;
(not z in U1) & not z in U2 by A6,A7,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
hence thesis by A3,A6,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
U2/\U12=u2 by XBOOLE_1:7,28; then
A8: u2 is open by A3,TSP_1:def 1;
U1/\U12=u1 by XBOOLE_1:7,28; then
A9: u1 is open by A3,TSP_1:def 1;
A10: ind a=ind A by TOPDIM_1:21;
ind A<=0 & TU|a is second-countable by A1,METRIZTS:9,TOPDIM_1:17;
then consider L be Subset of TU such that
A11: L separates u1`,u2` and
A12: ind(L/\a)<=0-1 by A4,A5,A9,A8,A10,Th11;
consider v1,v2 be open Subset of TU such that
A13: u1`c=v1 & u2`c=v2 and
A14: v1 misses v2 and
A15: L=(v1\/v2)` by A11,METRIZTS:def 3;
reconsider V1=v1,V2=v2 as Subset of TM by A3,XBOOLE_1:1;
reconsider V1,V2 as open Subset of TM by A3,TSEP_1:9;
take V2,V1;
u1`misses v2 & u2`misses v1 by A13,A14,XBOOLE_1:63;
hence V2 c=U1 & V1 c=U2 & V2 misses V1 by A14,SUBSET_1:24;
L/\a c=a by XBOOLE_1:17;
then
A16: L/\a is finite-ind by A4,TOPDIM_1:19;
then ind(L/\a)>=-1 by TOPDIM_1:5;
then ind(L/\a)=-1 by A12,XXREAL_0:1;
then L/\a is empty by A16;
then L misses a;
hence thesis by A15,SUBSET_1:24;
end;
::Wprowadzenie do topologii Th 3.4.13
theorem Th22:
for A st TM|A is second-countable finite-ind & ind A<=0
for F st F is open & F is Cover of A
ex g be Function of F,bool the carrier of TM st
rng g is open & rng g is Cover of A &
(for a be set st a in F holds g.a c= a) &
for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b
proof
defpred P[Nat] means
for A be Subset of TM st TM|A is second-countable & A is finite-ind
& ind A<=0 for F be finite Subset-Family of TM st F is open &
F is Cover of A & card F<=$1ex g be Function of F,bool the carrier of TM st
rng g is open & rng g is Cover of A &
(for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a) & for a,b be set st a
in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b;
let A be Subset of TM such that
A1: TM|A is second-countable finite-ind & ind A<=0;
let F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A2: F is open & F is Cover of A;
A3: for n st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n such that
A4: P[n];
let A be Subset of TM such that
A5: TM|A is second-countable and
A6: A is finite-ind and
A7: ind A<=0;
let F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A8: F is open and
A9: F is Cover of A and
A10: card F<=n+1;
per cases by A10,NAT_1:8;
suppose card F<=n;
hence thesis by A4,A5,A6,A7,A8,A9;
end;
suppose
A11: card F=n+1;
per cases;
suppose n=0;
then consider x be object such that
A12: F={x} by A11,CARD_2:42;
set g=F-->x;
dom g=F & rng g=F by A12,FUNCOP_1:8,13;
then reconsider g as Function of F,bool the carrier of TM by FUNCT_2:2;
take g;
thus rng g is open & rng g is Cover of A by A8,A9,A12,FUNCOP_1:8;
hereby
let a be set;
assume
A13: a in F;
then g.a=x by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence g.a c=a by A12,A13,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
let a,b be set such that
A14: a in F and
A15: b in F & a<>b;
x=a by A12,A14,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A12,A15,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
suppose n>0;
then reconsider n1=n-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
F is non empty by A11;
then consider x be object such that
A16: x in F;
A17: card(F\{x})=n1+1 by A11,A16,STIRL2_1:55;
then F\{x} is non empty;
then consider y be object such that
A18: y in F\{x};
y in F by A18,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then reconsider x,y as open Subset of TM by A8,A16;
set X={x},xy=x\/y,Y={y},XY={xy};
A19: (F\X)\/X=F by A16,ZFMISC_1:116;
set Fxy=F\X\Y;
A20: card Fxy=n1 by A17,A18,STIRL2_1:55;
set FXY=Fxy\/XY;
card XY=1 by CARD_1:30;
then
A21: card FXY<=n1+1 by A20,CARD_2:43;
F\X is open by A8,TOPS_2:15;
then
A22: Fxy is open by TOPS_2:15;
A23: ((F\X)\Y)\/Y=F\X by A18,ZFMISC_1:116;
for A be Subset of TM st A in XY holds A is open by TARSKI:def 1;
then
A24: XY is open;
per cases;
suppose
A25: Fxy is Cover of A;
card Fxy<=n1+1 by A20,NAT_1:13;
then consider g be Function of Fxy,bool the carrier of TM such that
A26: rng g is open and
A27: rng g is Cover of A and
A28: for a be set st a in Fxy holds g.a c=a and
A29: for a,b be set st a in Fxy & b in Fxy & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b
by A4,A5,A6,A7,A22,A25;
A30: A c=union rng g by A27,SETFAM_1:def 11;
set h=(x,y)-->({}TM,{}TM);
A31: dom h={x,y} by FUNCT_4:62;
not x in F\X by ZFMISC_1:56;
then
A32: not x in Fxy by ZFMISC_1:56;
not y in Fxy by ZFMISC_1:56;
then
A33: Fxy misses{x,y} by A32,ZFMISC_1:51;
A34: x<>y by A18,ZFMISC_1:56;
then
A35: rng h={{}TM,{}TM} by FUNCT_4:64;
A36: Fxy\/{x,y}=Fxy\/(Y\/X) by ENUMSET1:1
.=Fxy\/Y\/X by XBOOLE_1:4
.=F by A18,A19,ZFMISC_1:116;
A37: dom g=Fxy by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then
A38: rng(g+*h)=rng g\/rng h by A31,A33,NECKLACE:6;
dom(g+*h)=Fxy\/{x,y} by A31,A37,FUNCT_4:def 1;
then reconsider gh=g+*h as Function of F,bool the carrier of TM
by A36,A38,FUNCT_2:2;
take gh;
h.y={}TM & y in {x,y} by FUNCT_4:63,TARSKI:def 2;
then
A39: gh.y={}TM by A31,FUNCT_4:13;
for A be Subset of TM st A in {{}TM,{}TM} holds A is open
by TARSKI:def 2;
then {{}TM,{}TM} is open;
hence rng gh is open by A26,A35,A38,TOPS_2:13;
union rng gh=union rng g\/union rng h by A38,ZFMISC_1:78
.=union rng g\/union{{}TM} by A35,ENUMSET1:29
.=union rng g\/{}TM by ZFMISC_1:25
.=union rng g;
hence rng gh is Cover of A by A30,SETFAM_1:def 11;
x in {x,y} & h.x={}TM by A34,FUNCT_4:63,TARSKI:def 2;
then
A40: gh.x={}TM by A31,FUNCT_4:13;
hereby
let a be set;
assume
A41: a in F;
per cases by A36,A41,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose a in Fxy;
then (not a in dom h) & g.a c=a by A28,A33,XBOOLE_0:3;
hence gh.a c=a by FUNCT_4:11;
end;
suppose a in {x,y};
then a=x or a=y by TARSKI:def 2;
hence gh.a c=a by A39,A40;
end;
end;
let a,b be set such that
A42: a in F & b in F and
A43: a<>b;
per cases by A36,A42,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A44: a in Fxy & b in Fxy;
then not a in dom h by A33,XBOOLE_0:3;
then
A45: gh.a=g.a by FUNCT_4:11;
(not b in dom h) & g.a misses g.b by A29,A33,A43,A44,XBOOLE_0:3;
hence thesis by A45,FUNCT_4:11;
end;
suppose a in {x,y} or b in {x,y};
then gh.a={}TM or gh.b={}TM by A39,A40,TARSKI:def 2;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
suppose
A46: not Fxy is Cover of A;
A47: union Fxy\/xy=union Fxy\/union XY by ZFMISC_1:25
.=union FXY by ZFMISC_1:78;
A48: FXY is open by A22,A24,TOPS_2:13;
A49: union F=union(F\X)\/union X by A19,ZFMISC_1:78
.=union(F\X)\/x by ZFMISC_1:25
.=union Fxy\/union Y\/x by A23,ZFMISC_1:78
.=union Fxy\/y\/x by ZFMISC_1:25
.=union Fxy\/(y\/x) by XBOOLE_1:4;
A c=union F by A9,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then FXY is Cover of A by A47,A49,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then consider g be Function of FXY,bool the carrier of TM such that
A50: rng g is open and
A51: rng g is Cover of A and
A52: for a be set st a in FXY holds g.a c=a and
A53: for a,b be set st a in FXY & b in FXY & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b
by A4,A5,A6,A7,A21,A48;
A54: rng(g|Fxy) is open by A50,RELAT_1:70,TOPS_2:11;
xy in XY by TARSKI:def 1;
then
A55: xy in FXY by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then
A56: g.xy c=xy by A52;
A57: dom g=FXY by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then
A58: dom(g|Fxy)=FXY/\Fxy by RELAT_1:61
.=Fxy by XBOOLE_1:21;
g.xy in rng g by A55,A57,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then reconsider gxy=g.xy as open Subset of TM by A50;
set gxyA=gxy/\A;
gxyA c=gxy by XBOOLE_1:17;
then
A59: gxyA c=xy by A56;
[#](TM|A)=A by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
then reconsider GxyA=gxyA as Subset of TM|A by XBOOLE_1:17;
A60: TM|A|GxyA=TM|gxyA by METRIZTS:9;
TM|A is finite-ind by A6;
then
A61: gxyA is finite-ind by A60,TOPDIM_1:18;
then
A62: ind gxyA=ind TM|gxyA by TOPDIM_1:17;
ind GxyA<=ind TM|A by A6,TOPDIM_1:19;
then ind GxyA<=0 by A6,A7,TOPDIM_1:17;
then ind gxyA<=0 by A61,TOPDIM_1:21;
then consider V1,V2 be open Subset of TM such that
A63: V1 c=x & V2 c=y and
A64: V1 misses V2 and
A65: gxyA c=V1\/V2 by A5,A59,A60,A61,A62,Lm10;
reconsider gV1=gxy/\V1,gV2=gxy/\V2 as open Subset of TM;
set h=(x,y)-->(gV1,gV2);
A66: dom h={x,y} by FUNCT_4:62;
then
A67: dom((g|Fxy)+*h)=Fxy\/{x,y} by A58,FUNCT_4:def 1;
not x in F\X by ZFMISC_1:56;
then
A68: not x in Fxy by ZFMISC_1:56;
A69: x in {x,y} by TARSKI:def 2;
A70: Fxy\/{x,y}=Fxy\/(Y\/X) by ENUMSET1:1
.=Fxy\/Y\/X by XBOOLE_1:4
.=F by A18,A19,ZFMISC_1:116;
for A be Subset of TM st A in {gV1,gV2} holds A is open
by TARSKI:def 2;
then
A71: {gV1,gV2} is open;
A72: y in {x,y} by TARSKI:def 2;
not y in Fxy by ZFMISC_1:56;
then
A73: Fxy misses{x,y} by A68,ZFMISC_1:51;
then
A74: rng((g|Fxy)+*h)=rng(g|Fxy)\/rng h by A58,A66,NECKLACE:6;
then reconsider gh=(g|Fxy)+*h as
Function of F,bool the carrier of TM by A67,A70,FUNCT_2:2;
A75: Fxy c=dom gh by A67,XBOOLE_1:7;
take gh;
A76: x<>y by A18,ZFMISC_1:56;
then rng h={gV1,gV2} by FUNCT_4:64;
hence rng gh is open by A54,A71,A74,TOPS_2:13;
h.x=gV1 by A76,FUNCT_4:63;
then
A77: gh.x=gV1 by A66,A69,FUNCT_4:13;
h.y=gV2 by FUNCT_4:63;
then
A78: gh.y=gV2 by A66,A72,FUNCT_4:13;
A79: for a,b be set st a in Fxy & b in {x,y} & a<>b holds gh.a misses gh
.b
proof
xy in XY by TARSKI:def 1; then
A80: xy in FXY by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
let a,b be set such that
A81: a in Fxy and
A82: b in {x,y} and
a<>b;
(g|Fxy).a=g.a & not a in dom h
by A58,A73,A81,FUNCT_1:47,XBOOLE_0:3;
then
A83: gh.a=g.a by FUNCT_4:11;
A84: a<>xy
proof
assume a=xy; then
A85: union F=union Fxy by A49,A81,XBOOLE_1:12,ZFMISC_1:74;
not A c=union Fxy by A46,SETFAM_1:def 11;
hence thesis by A9,A85,SETFAM_1:def 11;
end;
assume gh.a meets gh.b;
then consider z be object such that
A86: z in gh.a and
A87: z in gh.b by XBOOLE_0:3;
z in gV1 or z in gV2 by A78,A77,A82,A87,TARSKI:def 2;
then z in gxy by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then g.xy meets g.a by A83,A86,XBOOLE_0:3;
hence thesis by A53,A58,A80,A81,A84;
end;
A88: {x,y}c=dom gh by A67,XBOOLE_1:7;
then
A89: gh.y in rng gh by A72,FUNCT_1:def 3;
A90: gh.x in rng gh by A69,A88,FUNCT_1:def 3;
A c=union rng gh
proof
let z be object such that
A91: z in A;
A c=union rng g by A51,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then consider G be set such that
A92: z in G and
A93: G in rng g by A91,TARSKI:def 4;
consider Gx be object such that
A94: Gx in FXY and
A95: g.Gx=G by A57,A93,FUNCT_1:def 3;
per cases by A94,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A96: Gx in Fxy;
then (g|Fxy).Gx=G & not Gx in dom h by A58,A73,A95,FUNCT_1:47
,XBOOLE_0:3;
then
A97: gh.Gx=G by FUNCT_4:11;
gh.Gx in rng gh by A75,A96,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A92,A97,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
suppose Gx in XY;
then
A98: z in gxy by A92,A95,TARSKI:def 1;
then z in gxyA by A91,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then z in V1 or z in V2 by A65,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then z in gV1 or z in gV2 by A98,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence thesis by A78,A77,A90,A89,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
end;
hence rng gh is Cover of A by SETFAM_1:def 11;
A99: gV1 c=V1 & gV2 c=V2 by XBOOLE_1:17;
hereby
let a be set;
assume
A100: a in F;
per cases by A70,A100,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A101: a in Fxy; then
A102: (g|Fxy).a=g.a by A58,FUNCT_1:47;
(not a in dom h) & g.a c=a by A52,A58,A73,A101,XBOOLE_0:3;
hence gh.a c=a by A102,FUNCT_4:11;
end;
suppose a in {x,y};
then a=x or a=y by TARSKI:def 2;
hence gh.a c=a by A63,A78,A77,A99;
end;
end;
let a,b be set such that
A103: a in F & b in F and
A104: a<>b;
per cases by A70,A103,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A105: a in Fxy & b in Fxy;
then (g|Fxy).a=g.a & not a in dom h
by A58,A73,FUNCT_1:47,XBOOLE_0:3;
then
A106: gh.a=g.a by FUNCT_4:11;
A107: (g|Fxy).b=g.b & not b in dom h by A58,A73,A105,FUNCT_1:47
,XBOOLE_0:3;
g.a misses g.b by A53,A58,A104,A105;
hence thesis by A106,A107,FUNCT_4:11;
end;
suppose a in Fxy & b in {x,y} or a in {x,y} & b in Fxy;
hence thesis by A79,A104;
end;
suppose
A108: a in {x,y} & b in {x,y};
then a=x or a=y by TARSKI:def 2;
then a=x & b=y or a=y & b=x by A104,A108,TARSKI:def 2;
hence thesis by A64,A78,A77,A99,XBOOLE_1:64;
end;
end;
end;
end;
end;
A109: P[0]
proof
let A be Subset of TM such that
TM|A is second-countable and
A is finite-ind and
ind A<=0;
let F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
F is open and
A110: F is Cover of A and
A111: card F<=0;
rng{}c=bool the carrier of TM & dom{}=F by A111;
then reconsider g={} as Function of F,bool the carrier of TM by FUNCT_2:2;
take g;
F={} by A111;
hence thesis by A110;
end;
for n holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A109,A3);
then P[card F];
hence thesis by A1,A2,TOPDIM_1:18;
end;
:: Wprowadzenie do topologii Th 3.4.14
theorem
for TM st TM is second-countable finite-ind & ind TM <= n
for F st F is open & F is Cover of TM
ex G st G is open & G is Cover of TM & G is_finer_than F &
card G <= card F*(n+1) & order G <= n
proof
let TM such that
A1: TM is second-countable finite-ind and
A2: ind TM<=n;
reconsider I=n as Integer;
consider G be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A3: G is Cover of TM and
A4: G is finite-ind & ind G<=0 and
A5: card G<=I+1 and
for a,b be Subset of TM st a in G & b in G & a meets b holds a=b by A1,A2,Th7
;
set cTM=the carrier of TM;
let F be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A6: F is open and
A7: F is Cover of TM;
A8: card((n+1)*card F)=(n+1)*card F;
defpred P[object,object] means
for A be Subset of TM st A=$1ex g be Function of F,bool cTM st$2=rng g &
rng g is open & rng g is Cover of A &
(for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a) &
for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b;
A9: for x be object st x in G
ex y be object st y in bool bool cTM & P[x,y]
proof
let x be object;
assume
A10: x in G;
then reconsider A=x as Subset of TM;
A11: TM|A is second-countable by A1;
[#]TM c=union F by A7,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then A c=union F;
then
A12: F is Cover of A by SETFAM_1:def 11;
A is finite-ind & ind A<=0 by A4,A10,TOPDIM_1:11;
then consider g be Function of F,bool the carrier of TM such that
A13: rng g is open & rng g is Cover of A & ((for a be set st a in F holds g
.a c=a) & for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b) by A6
,A11,A12,Th22;
take rng g;
thus thesis by A13;
end;
consider GG be Function of G,bool bool cTM such that
A14: for x be object st x in G holds P[x,GG.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 1(A9);
union rng GG c=union bool bool cTM by ZFMISC_1:77;
then reconsider Ugg=Union GG as Subset-Family of TM;
A15: dom GG=G by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A16: for x be object st x in dom GG holds card(GG.x)c=card F
proof
let x be object;
assume
A17: x in dom GG;
then reconsider A=x as Subset of TM by A15;
consider g be Function of F,bool cTM such that
A18: GG.x=rng g and
rng g is open and
rng g is Cover of A and
for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a and
for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b by A14,A17;
dom g=F by FUNCT_2:def 1;
hence thesis by A18,CARD_1:12;
end;
Segm card dom GG c= Segm(n+1) by A5,A15,NAT_1:39;
then
A19: card Ugg c=(n+1)*`card F by A16,CARD_2:86;
card card F=card F & card(n+1)=n+1;
then
A20: (n+1)*`card F=(n+1)*card F by A8,CARD_2:39;
then reconsider Ugg as finite Subset-Family of TM by A19;
take Ugg;
thus Ugg is open
proof
let A be Subset of TM;
assume A in Ugg;
then consider Y be set such that
A21: A in Y and
A22: Y in rng GG by TARSKI:def 4;
consider x be object such that
A23: x in dom GG & Y=GG.x by A22,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
ex g be Function of F,bool cTM st Y=rng g & rng g is open &
rng g is Cover of x &
(for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a) &
for a,b be set st a in F & b in
F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b by A14,A15,A23;
hence thesis by A21;
end;
[#]TM c=union Ugg
proof
A24: [#]TM c=union G by A3,SETFAM_1:def 11;
let x be object such that
A25: x in [#]TM;
consider A be set such that
A26: x in A and
A27: A in G by A24,A25,TARSKI:def 4;
consider g be Function of F,bool cTM such that
A28: GG.A=rng g and
rng g is open and
A29: rng g is Cover of A and
for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a and
for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b by A14,A27;
A c=union rng g by A29,SETFAM_1:def 11;
then consider y be set such that
A30: x in y and
A31: y in rng g by A26,TARSKI:def 4;
GG.A in rng GG by A15,A27,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then y in Ugg by A28,A31,TARSKI:def 4;
hence thesis by A30,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
hence Ugg is Cover of TM by SETFAM_1:def 11;
thus Ugg is_finer_than F
proof
let A be set;
assume A in Ugg;
then consider Y be set such that
A32: A in Y and
A33: Y in rng GG by TARSKI:def 4;
consider x be object such that
A34: x in dom GG & Y=GG.x by A33,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
consider g be Function of F,bool cTM such that
A35: Y=rng g and
rng g is open and
rng g is Cover of x and
A36: for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a and
for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b by A14,A15
,A34;
dom g=F by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then ex z be object st z in F & g.z=A by A32,A35,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A36;
end;
Segm card Ugg c= Segm(card F*(n+1)) by A19,A20;
hence card Ugg<=card F*(n+1) by NAT_1:39;
defpred Q[object,object] means
$1 in GG.$2;
now
let H be finite Subset-Family of TM such that
A37: H c=Ugg and
A38: card H>n+1;
H is non empty by A38;
then consider XX be object such that
A39: XX in H;
A40: for x be object st x in H ex y be object st y in G & Q[x,y]
proof
let A be object;
assume A in H;
then consider Y be set such that
A41: A in Y and
A42: Y in rng GG by A37,TARSKI:def 4;
ex x be object st x in dom GG & Y=GG.x by A42,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A41;
end;
consider q be Function of H,G such that
A43: for x be object st x in H holds Q[x,q.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 1(A40);
ex y be object st y in G & Q[XX,y] by A40,A39;
then
A44: dom q=H by FUNCT_2:def 1;
assume meet H is non empty;
then consider x be object such that
A45: x in meet H;
for x1,x2 be object st x1 in dom q & x2 in dom q & q.x1=q.x2 holds x1=x2
proof
let x1,x2 be object such that
A46: x1 in dom q and
A47: x2 in dom q and
A48: q.x1=q.x2;
reconsider x1,x2 as set by TARSKI:1;
x in x1 & x in x2 by A45,A46,A47,SETFAM_1:def 1;
then
A49: x1 meets x2 by XBOOLE_0:3;
q.x1 in rng q by A46,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then q.x1 in G;
then consider g be Function of F,bool cTM such that
A50: GG.(q.x1)=rng g and
rng g is open and
rng g is Cover of(q.x1) and
for a be set st a in F holds g.a c=a and
A51: for a,b be set st a in F & b in F & a<>b holds g.a misses g.b by A14;
A52: dom g=F by FUNCT_2:def 1;
x2 in GG.(q.x1) by A43,A47,A48;
then
A53: ex y2 be object st y2 in F & x2=g.y2 by A50,A52,FUNCT_1:def 3;
x1 in GG.(q.x1) by A43,A46;
then ex y1 be object st y1 in F & x1=g.y1 by A50,A52,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A49,A51,A53;
end;
then
A54: q is one-to-one by FUNCT_1:def 4;
rng q c=G;
then Segm card H c= Segm card G by A54,A44,CARD_1:10;
then card H<=card G by NAT_1:39;
hence contradiction by A5,A38,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
hence thesis by Th3;
end;
::Wprowadzenie do topologii Lm 3.4.17
theorem
for TM st TM is finite-ind for A st ind A`<=n & TM|A` is second-countable
for A1,A2 be closed Subset of TM st A=A1\/A2
ex X1,X2 be closed Subset of TM st[#]TM=X1\/X2 & A1 c=X1 & A2 c=X2 &
A1/\X2=A1/\A2 & A1/\A2=X1/\A2 & ind((X1/\X2)\(A1/\A2))<=n-1
proof
let TM such that
A1: TM is finite-ind;
set cTM=[#]TM;
let A such that
A2: ind A`<=n and
A3: TM|A` is second-countable;
let A1,A2 be closed Subset of TM such that
A4: A=A1\/A2;
set A12=A1/\A2;
set T912=TM| (cTM\A12);
A5: [#]T912=cTM\A12 by PRE_TOPC:def 5;
A`c=cTM\A12 by A4,XBOOLE_1:29,34;
then reconsider A19=A1\A12,A29=A2\A12,A9=A` as Subset of T912 by A5,
XBOOLE_1:33;
A2/\[#]T912=(A2/\cTM)\A12 by A5,XBOOLE_1:49
.=A29 by XBOOLE_1:28;
then reconsider A29 as closed Subset of T912 by PRE_TOPC:13;
A1/\[#]T912=(A1/\cTM)\A12 by A5,XBOOLE_1:49
.=A19 by XBOOLE_1:28;
then reconsider A19 as closed Subset of T912 by PRE_TOPC:13;
A1\A2=A19 by XBOOLE_1:47;
then A19 misses A2 by XBOOLE_1:79;
then
A6: A19 misses A29 by XBOOLE_1:36,63;
A7: ind A`=ind A9 by A1,TOPDIM_1:21;
T912|A9 is second-countable by A3,METRIZTS:9;
then consider L be Subset of T912 such that
A8: L separates A19,A29 and
A9: ind(L/\A9)<=n-1 by A1,A2,A6,A7,Th11;
consider U,W be open Subset of T912 such that
A10: A19 c=U and
A11: A29 c=W and
A12: U misses W and
A13: L=(U\/W)` by A8,METRIZTS:def 3;
[#]T912 c=cTM by PRE_TOPC:def 4;
then reconsider L9=L,U9=U,W9=W as Subset of TM by XBOOLE_1:1;
A14: A1=(A1\A12)\/A12 & A2=(A2\A12)\/A12 by XBOOLE_1:17,45;
L misses A
proof
assume L meets A;
then consider x be object such that
A15: x in L and
A16: x in A by XBOOLE_0:3;
A17: x in A1 or x in A2 by A4,A16,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
not x in A12 by A5,A15,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then x in A19 or x in A29 by A17,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then x in U\/W by A10,A11,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A13,A15,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
then
A18: L=L9\A by XBOOLE_1:83
.=(L/\cTM)\A by XBOOLE_1:28
.=L/\A9 by XBOOLE_1:49;
A19: cTM\(cTM\A12)=cTM/\A12 by XBOOLE_1:48
.=A12 by XBOOLE_1:28;
A20: A1\(A1\A12)=A1/\A12 by XBOOLE_1:48
.=A12 by XBOOLE_1:17,28;
A12` is open;
then reconsider U9,W9 as open Subset of TM by A5,TSEP_1:9;
take X2=W9`,X1=U9`;
A21: W9 c=X1 by A12,SUBSET_1:23;
A22: W\/(cTM\(U\/W))=W\/(X1/\X2) by XBOOLE_1:53
.=(W9\/X1)/\(W\/X2) by XBOOLE_1:24
.=(W9\/X1)/\cTM by XBOOLE_1:45
.=X1/\cTM by A21,XBOOLE_1:12
.=X1 by XBOOLE_1:28;
thus X2\/X1=cTM\(U9/\W9) by XBOOLE_1:54
.=cTM\{} by A12
.=cTM;
A23: U9 c=X2 by A12,SUBSET_1:23;
A24: U\/(cTM\(U\/W))=U\/((X1)/\X2) by XBOOLE_1:53
.=(U9\/X1)/\(U\/X2) by XBOOLE_1:24
.=cTM/\(U\/X2) by XBOOLE_1:45
.=cTM/\X2 by A23,XBOOLE_1:12
.=X2 by XBOOLE_1:28;
cTM\(cTM\A12)c=cTM\(U\/W) by A5,XBOOLE_1:34;
hence
A25: A1 c=X2 & A2 c=X1 by A10,A11,A14,A19,A24,A22,XBOOLE_1:13;
then
A26: A12 c=A1/\X1 by XBOOLE_1:26;
A1/\X1=(cTM/\A1)\U9 by XBOOLE_1:49
.=A1\U9 by XBOOLE_1:28;
then A1/\X1 c=A12 by A10,A20,XBOOLE_1:34;
hence A1/\X1=A12 by A26;
A27: A2\(A2\A12)=A2/\A12 by XBOOLE_1:48
.=A12 by XBOOLE_1:17,28;
A28: A12 c=A2/\X2 by A25,XBOOLE_1:26;
A2/\X2=(cTM/\A2)\W9 by XBOOLE_1:49
.=A2\W9 by XBOOLE_1:28;
then A2/\X2 c=A12 by A11,A27,XBOOLE_1:34;
hence A12=X2/\A2 by A28;
(X2/\X1)\A12=cTM\(W9\/U9)\A12 by XBOOLE_1:53
.=cTM\((W9\/U9)\/A12) by XBOOLE_1:41
.=L by A5,A13,XBOOLE_1:41;
hence thesis by A1,A9,A18,TOPDIM_1:21;
end;
~~