:: Topology of Real Unitary Space
:: by Noboru Endou , Takashi Mitsuishi and Yasunari Shidama
::
:: Received October 25, 2002
:: Copyright (c) 2002-2017 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, XBOOLE_0, RLVECT_1, RUSUB_4, SUBSET_1, ARYTM_3,
SUPINF_2, TARSKI, ALGSTR_0, ARYTM_1, REAL_1, RELAT_1, BHSP_1, RLSUB_1,
STRUCT_0, RVSUM_1, PROB_2, CARD_1, NORMSP_1, SQUARE_1, XXREAL_0,
RLVECT_3, PCOMPS_1, SETFAM_1, PRE_TOPC, METRIC_1, RCOMP_1, COMPLEX1,
RUSUB_5;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, SETFAM_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0,
XCMPLX_0, XREAL_0, COMPLEX1, REAL_1, PRE_TOPC, DOMAIN_1, STRUCT_0,
ALGSTR_0, RLVECT_1, RLSUB_1, SQUARE_1, BHSP_1, BHSP_2, RUSUB_1, RUSUB_3,
RUSUB_4;
constructors SETFAM_1, REAL_1, SQUARE_1, MEMBERED, COMPLEX1, REALSET1,
PRE_TOPC, RLVECT_3, BHSP_2, RUSUB_3, RUSUB_4, XXREAL_0;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, STRUCT_0, PRE_TOPC,
TOPS_1, RLVECT_1, RUSUB_4, SQUARE_1, ORDINAL1;
requirements REAL, NUMERALS, BOOLE, SUBSET, ARITHM;
definitions XBOOLE_0, TARSKI, PRE_TOPC;
equalities RLVECT_1, SQUARE_1, SUBSET_1, STRUCT_0;
expansions XBOOLE_0, TARSKI, PRE_TOPC, STRUCT_0;
theorems RLVECT_1, TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, RUSUB_1, SUBSET_1, RLSUB_1,
PRE_TOPC, RUSUB_4, BHSP_1, BHSP_2, SQUARE_1, ZFMISC_1, SETFAM_1,
ABSVALUE, TOPS_1, XCMPLX_1, XREAL_1, COMPLEX1, XXREAL_0, STRUCT_0;
schemes DOMAIN_1, SUBSET_1;
begin :: Parallelism of Subspaces
definition
let V be non empty RLSStruct, M,N be Affine Subset of V;
pred M is_parallel_to N means
ex v being VECTOR of V st M = N + {v};
end;
theorem
for V being right_zeroed non empty RLSStruct, M be Affine Subset of
V holds M is_parallel_to M
proof
let V be right_zeroed non empty RLSStruct;
let M be Affine Subset of V;
take 0.V;
for x being object st x in M + {0.V} holds x in M
proof
let x be object;
assume x in M + {0.V};
then x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in {0.V}} by
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u,v being Element of V such that
A1: x = u + v & u in M and
A2: v in {0.V};
v = 0.V by A2,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A1,RLVECT_1:def 4;
end;
then
A3: M + {0.V} c= M;
for x being object st x in M holds x in M + {0.V}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A4: x in M;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x = x + 0.V & 0.V in {0.V} by RLVECT_1:def 4,TARSKI:def 1;
then x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in {0.V}} by A4;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
then M c= M + {0.V};
hence thesis by A3;
end;
theorem Th2:
for V being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementablenon
empty RLSStruct, M,N be Affine Subset of V st M is_parallel_to N holds N
is_parallel_to M
proof
let V be add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non empty
RLSStruct;
let M,N be Affine Subset of V;
assume M is_parallel_to N;
then consider w1 being VECTOR of V such that
A1: M = N + {w1};
set w2 = - w1;
for x being object st x in N holds x in M + {w2}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in N;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
set y = x + w1;
w1 in {w1} by TARSKI:def 1;
then y in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in N & v in {w1} } by A2;
then
A3: y in M by A1,RUSUB_4:def 9;
x + (w1 + w2) = y + w2 by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then x + 0.V = y + w2 by RLVECT_1:5;
then
A4: x = y + w2;
w2 in {w2} by TARSKI:def 1;
then x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in {w2}} by A3,A4;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
then
A5: N c= M + {w2};
take w2;
for x being object st x in M + {w2} holds x in N
proof
let x be object;
assume
A6: x in M + {w2};
then x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in {w2}} by
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u9,v9 being Element of V such that
A7: x = u9 + v9 and
A8: u9 in M and
A9: v9 in {w2};
reconsider x as Element of V by A6;
x = u9 + w2 by A7,A9,TARSKI:def 1;
then x + w1 = u9 + (w2 + w1) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then
A10: x + w1 = u9 + 0.V by RLVECT_1:5;
u9 in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in N & v in {w1 } } by A1,A8,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A11: u9 = u1 + v1 & u1 in N and
A12: v1 in {w1};
w1 =v1 by A12,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A10,A11,RLVECT_1:8;
end;
then M + {w2} c= N;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
theorem Th3:
for V being Abelian add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable non empty RLSStruct, M,L,N be Affine Subset of V st M
is_parallel_to L & L is_parallel_to N holds M is_parallel_to N
proof
let V be Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non
empty RLSStruct;
let M,L,N be Affine Subset of V;
assume that
A1: M is_parallel_to L and
A2: L is_parallel_to N;
consider v1 being Element of V such that
A3: M = L + {v1} by A1;
consider u1 being Element of V such that
A4: L = N + {u1} by A2;
set w = u1 + v1;
for x being object st x in N + {w} holds x in M
proof
let x be object;
A5: u1 in {u1} by TARSKI:def 1;
assume
A6: x in N + {w};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in N & v in {w}} by A6,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A7: x = u2 + v2 and
A8: u2 in N and
A9: v2 in {w};
x = u2 + (u1 + v1) by A7,A9,TARSKI:def 1
.= u2 + u1 + v1 by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then x - v1 = u2 + u1 + (v1 - v1) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= u2 + u1 + 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= u2 + u1;
then x - v1 in {u + v where u,v is Element of V : u in N & v in {u1}} by A8
,A5;
then
A10: x - v1 in L by A4,RUSUB_4:def 9;
set y = x - v1;
A11: v1 in {v1} by TARSKI:def 1;
y + v1 = x - (v1 - v1) by RLVECT_1:29
.= x - 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= x;
then
x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in L & v in {v1}} by A10,A11;
hence thesis by A3,RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
then
A12: N + {w} c= M;
for x being object st x in M holds x in N + {w}
proof
let x be object;
A13: w in {w} by TARSKI:def 1;
assume
A14: x in M;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in L & v in {v1} } by A3,A14,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A15: x = u2 + v2 and
A16: u2 in L and
A17: v2 in {v1};
A18: v2 = v1 by A17,TARSKI:def 1;
u2 in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in N & v in {u1 } } by A4,A16,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u3,v3 being Element of V such that
A19: u2 = u3 + v3 and
A20: u3 in N and
A21: v3 in {u1};
v3 = u1 by A21,TARSKI:def 1;
then x = u3 + w by A15,A19,A18,RLVECT_1:def 3;
then
x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in N & v in {w}} by A20,A13;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
then M c= N + {w};
then M = N + {w} by A12;
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let V be non empty addLoopStr, M,N be Subset of V;
func M - N -> Subset of V equals
{u - v where u,v is Element of V: u in M &
v in N};
coherence
proof
defpred P[set,set] means $1 in M & $2 in N;
deffunc F(Element of V,Element of V) = $1 - $2;
{F(u,v) where u,v is Element of V : P[u,v]} is Subset of V from
DOMAIN_1:sch 9;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th4:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M,N being Affine Subset of V holds M
- N is Affine
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M,N be Affine Subset of V;
for x,y being VECTOR of V, a being Real
st x in M - N & y in M - N holds
(1 - a) * x + a * y in M - N
proof
let x,y be VECTOR of V;
let a be Real;
assume that
A1: x in M - N and
A2: y in M - N;
consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A3: x = u1 - v1 and
A4: u1 in M & v1 in N by A1;
consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A5: y = u2 - v2 and
A6: u2 in M & v2 in N by A2;
A7: (1 - a) * x + a * y = (1-a)*u1 - (1-a)*v1 + a * (u2 - v2) by A3,A5,
RLVECT_1:34
.= (1-a)*u1 - (1-a)*v1 + (a*u2 - a*v2) by RLVECT_1:34
.= (1-a)*u1 + (-(1-a)*v1) + a*u2 - a*v2 by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (1-a)*u1 + a*u2 + (-(1-a)*v1) + (-a*v2) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (1-a)*u1 + a*u2 + ((-(1-a)*v1) + (-a*v2)) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (1-a)*u1 + a*u2 - ((1-a)*v1 + a*v2) by RLVECT_1:31;
(1-a)*u1 + a*u2 in M & (1-a)*v1 + a*v2 in N by A4,A6,RUSUB_4:def 4;
hence thesis by A7;
end;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 4;
end;
theorem
for V being non empty addLoopStr, M,N being Subset of V st M is empty
or N is empty holds M + N is empty
proof
let V be non empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be Subset of V;
assume
A1: M is empty or N is empty;
assume not M + N is empty;
then consider x being object such that
A2: x in M + N;
x in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in N} by A2,RUSUB_4:def 9;
then ex u,v being Element of V st x = u + v & u in M & v in N;
hence contradiction by A1;
end;
theorem
for V being non empty addLoopStr, M,N being non empty Subset of V
holds M + N is non empty
proof
let V be non empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be non empty Subset of V;
consider x be object such that
A1: x in M by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
consider y be object such that
A2: y in N by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider x,y as Element of V by A1,A2;
x + y in {u + v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in N} by A1,A2;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
theorem
for V being non empty addLoopStr, M,N being Subset of V st M is empty
or N is empty holds M - N is empty
proof
let V be non empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be Subset of V;
assume
A1: M is empty or N is empty;
assume not M - N is empty;
then consider x being object such that
A2: x in M - N;
ex u,v being Element of V st x = u - v & u in M & v in N by A2;
hence contradiction by A1;
end;
theorem Th8:
for V being non empty addLoopStr, M,N being non empty Subset of V
holds M - N is non empty
proof
let V be non empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be non empty Subset of V;
consider x be object such that
A1: x in M by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
consider y be object such that
A2: y in N by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider x,y as Element of V by A1,A2;
x - y in {u - v where u,v is Element of V: u in M & v in N} by A1,A2;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th9:
for V being Abelian add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable non empty addLoopStr, M,N being Subset of V, v being
Element of V holds M = N + {v} iff M - {v} = N
proof
let V be Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non
empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be Subset of V;
let v be Element of V;
A1: M - {v} = N implies M = N + {v}
proof
assume
A2: M - {v} = N;
for x being object st x in N + {v} holds x in M
proof
let x be object;
assume
A3: x in N + {v};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x in {u1 + v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in N & v1 in {v}} by A3,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A4: x = u1 + v1 and
A5: u1 in N and
A6: v1 in {v};
A7: x - v1 = u1 + (v1 - v1) by A4,RLVECT_1:def 3
.= u1 + 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= u1;
v1 = v by A6,TARSKI:def 1;
then consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A8: x - v = u2 - v2 and
A9: u2 in M and
A10: v2 in {v} by A2,A5,A7;
v2 = v by A10,TARSKI:def 1;
then x - v + v = u2 - (v - v) by A8,RLVECT_1:29
.= u2 - 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= u2;
then u2 = x - (v - v) by RLVECT_1:29
.= x - 0.V by RLVECT_1:15;
hence thesis by A9;
end;
then
A11: N + {v} c= M;
for x being object st x in M holds x in N + {v}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A12: x in M;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
A13: v in {v} by TARSKI:def 1;
then
x - v in {u2 - v2 where u2,v2 is Element of V : u2 in M & v2 in {v}
} by A12;
then consider u2 being Element of V such that
A14: x - v = u2 and
A15: u2 in N by A2;
u2 + v = x - (v - v) by A14,RLVECT_1:29
.= x - 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= x;
then
x in {u1 + v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in N & v1 in {v}} by A13
,A15;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
then M c= N + {v};
hence thesis by A11;
end;
M = N + {v} implies M - {v} = N
proof
assume
A16: M = N + {v};
for x being object st x in M - {v} holds x in N
proof
let x be object;
assume
A17: x in M - {v};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A18: x = u1 - v1 and
A19: u1 in M and
A20: v1 in {v} by A17;
A21: x + v1 = u1 - (v1 - v1) by A18,RLVECT_1:29
.= u1 - 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= u1;
v1 = v by A20,TARSKI:def 1;
then
x + v in {u2 + v2 where u2,v2 is Element of V : u2 in N & v2 in {v}
} by A16,A19,A21,RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A22: x + v = u2 + v2 & u2 in N and
A23: v2 in {v};
v2 = v by A23,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A22,RLVECT_1:8;
end;
then
A24: M - {v} c= N;
for x being object st x in N holds x in M - {v}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A25: x in N;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
A26: v in {v} by TARSKI:def 1;
then
x + v in {u2 + v2 where u2,v2 is Element of V : u2 in N & v2 in {v}
} by A25;
then x + v in M by A16,RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u2 being Element of V such that
A27: x + v = u2 and
A28: u2 in M;
u2 - v = x + (v - v) by A27,RLVECT_1:def 3
.= x + 0.V by RLVECT_1:15
.= x;
hence thesis by A26,A28;
end;
then N c= M - {v};
hence thesis by A24;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem
for V being Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable
non empty addLoopStr, M,N being Subset of V, v being Element of V st v in N
holds M + {v} c= M + N
proof
let V be Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non
empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be Subset of V;
let v be Element of V;
assume
A1: v in N;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in M + {v};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x in {u1 + v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in M & v1 in {v}} by A2,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A3: x = u2 + v2 and
A4: u2 in M and
A5: v2 in {v};
x = u2 + v by A3,A5,TARSKI:def 1;
then
x in {u1 + v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in M & v1 in N} by A1,A4;
hence thesis by RUSUB_4:def 9;
end;
theorem
for V being Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable
non empty addLoopStr, M,N being Subset of V, v being Element of V st v in N
holds M - {v} c= M - N
proof
let V be Abelian add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable non
empty addLoopStr;
let M,N be Subset of V;
let v be Element of V;
assume
A1: v in N;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in M - {v};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
consider u2,v2 being Element of V such that
A3: x = u2 - v2 and
A4: u2 in M and
A5: v2 in {v} by A2;
x = u2 - v by A3,A5,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A1,A4;
end;
theorem Th12:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Subset of V holds 0.V in M - M
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Subset of V;
consider v being object such that
A1: v in M by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider v as Element of V by A1;
v - v in {u1 - v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in M & v1 in M} by A1;
hence thesis by RLVECT_1:15;
end;
theorem Th13:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, v being VECTOR of V st M is Subspace-like & v in M holds M + {v} c= M
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
assume
A1: M is Subspace-like & v in M;
let x be object;
assume
A2: x in M + {v};
then reconsider x as Element of V;
x in {u1 + v1 where u1,v1 is Element of V : u1 in M & v1 in {v}} by A2,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A3: x = u1 + v1 & u1 in M and
A4: v1 in {v};
v1 = v by A4,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A1,A3,RUSUB_4:def 7;
end;
theorem Th14:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, N1,N2 being non empty Affine Subset of V st N1 is Subspace-like & N2 is
Subspace-like & M is_parallel_to N1 & M is_parallel_to N2 holds N1 = N2
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M,N1,N2 be non empty Affine Subset of V;
assume that
A1: N1 is Subspace-like and
A2: N2 is Subspace-like and
A3: M is_parallel_to N1 and
A4: M is_parallel_to N2;
N2 is_parallel_to M by A4,Th2;
then N2 is_parallel_to N1 by A3,Th3;
then consider v2 being VECTOR of V such that
A5: N2 = N1 + {v2};
N1 is_parallel_to M by A3,Th2;
then N1 is_parallel_to N2 by A4,Th3;
then consider v1 being VECTOR of V such that
A6: N1 = N2 + {v1};
0.V in N2 by A2,RUSUB_4:def 7;
then 0.V in {p + q where p,q is Element of V : p in N1 & q in {v2}} by A5,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider p2,q2 being Element of V such that
A7: 0.V = p2 + q2 and
A8: p2 in N1 and
A9: q2 in {v2};
0.V = p2 + v2 by A7,A9,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A10: -v2 in N1 by A8,RLVECT_1:6;
v2 = -(-v2)
.= (-1) * (-v2) by RLVECT_1:16;
then v2 in N1 by A1,A10,RUSUB_4:def 7;
then
A11: N2 c= N1 by A1,A5,Th13;
0.V in N1 by A1,RUSUB_4:def 7;
then 0.V in {p + q where p,q is Element of V : p in N2 & q in {v1}} by A6,
RUSUB_4:def 9;
then consider p1,q1 being Element of V such that
A12: 0.V = p1 + q1 and
A13: p1 in N2 and
A14: q1 in {v1};
0.V = p1 + v1 by A12,A14,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A15: -v1 in N2 by A13,RLVECT_1:6;
v1 = -(-v1)
.= (-1) * (-v1) by RLVECT_1:16;
then v1 in N2 by A2,A15,RUSUB_4:def 7;
then N1 c= N2 by A2,A6,Th13;
hence thesis by A11;
end;
theorem Th15:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, v being VECTOR of V st v in M holds 0.V in M - {v}
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
let v being VECTOR of V;
A1: v in {v} & 0.V = v - v by RLVECT_1:15,TARSKI:def 1;
assume v in M;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th16:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, v being VECTOR of V st v in M holds ex N being non empty Affine Subset of V
st N = M - {v} & M is_parallel_to N & N is Subspace-like
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
{v} is non empty Affine by RUSUB_4:23;
then reconsider N = M - {v} as non empty Affine Subset of V by Th4,Th8;
assume v in M;
then
A1: 0.V in N by Th15;
take N;
M is_parallel_to N
proof
take v;
thus thesis by Th9;
end;
hence thesis by A1,RUSUB_4:26;
end;
theorem Th17:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, u,v being VECTOR of V st u in M & v in M holds M - {v} = M - {u}
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
let u,v be VECTOR of V;
assume u in M & v in M;
then (ex N1 being non empty Affine Subset of V st N1 = M - {u} & M
is_parallel_to N1 & N1 is Subspace-like )& ex N2 being non empty Affine Subset
of V st N2 = M - {v} & M is_parallel_to N2 & N2 is Subspace-like by Th16;
hence thesis by Th14;
end;
theorem Th18:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V holds M - M = union {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M}
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
for x being object st x in M - M holds x in union {M - {v} where v is
VECTOR of V : v in M}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in M - M;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
consider u1,v1 being Element of V such that
A2: x = u1 - v1 & u1 in M and
A3: v1 in M by A1;
v1 in {v1} by TARSKI:def 1;
then
A4: x in {p - q where p,q is Element of V : p in M & q in {v1}} by A2;
M - {v1} in {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M} by A3;
hence thesis by A4,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
then
A5: M - M c= union {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M};
for x being object st x in union {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M}
holds x in M - M
proof
let x be object;
assume x in union {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M};
then consider N being set such that
A6: x in N and
A7: N in {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M} by TARSKI:def 4;
consider v1 being VECTOR of V such that
A8: N = M - {v1} and
A9: v1 in M by A7;
consider p1,q1 being Element of V such that
A10: x = p1 - q1 & p1 in M and
A11: q1 in {v1} by A6,A8;
q1 = v1 by A11,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A9,A10;
end;
then union {M - {v} where v is VECTOR of V : v in M} c= M - M;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
theorem Th19:
for V being RealLinearSpace, M being non empty Affine Subset of
V, v being VECTOR of V st v in M holds M - {v} = union {M - {u} where u is
VECTOR of V : u in M}
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
assume
A1: v in M;
for x being object st x in union {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M }
holds x in M - {v}
proof
let x be object;
assume x in union {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M};
then consider N being set such that
A2: x in N and
A3: N in {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M} by TARSKI:def 4;
ex v1 being VECTOR of V st N = M - {v1} & v1 in M by A3;
hence thesis by A1,A2,Th17;
end;
then
A4: union {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M} c= M - {v};
for x being object st x in M - {v} holds x in union {M - {u} where u is
VECTOR of V : u in M}
proof
let x be object;
assume
A5: x in M - {v};
M - {v} in {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M} by A1;
hence thesis by A5,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
then M - {v} c= union {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M};
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem
for V being RealLinearSpace, M be non empty Affine Subset of V holds
ex L being non empty Affine Subset of V st L = M - M & L is Subspace-like & M
is_parallel_to L
proof
let V be RealLinearSpace;
let M be non empty Affine Subset of V;
reconsider L = M - M as non empty Affine Subset of V by Th4,Th8;
consider v being object such that
A1: v in M by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider v as VECTOR of V by A1;
take L;
A2: 0.V in L by Th12;
{v} is non empty Affine by RUSUB_4:23;
then reconsider N = M - {v} as non empty Affine Subset of V by Th4,Th8;
A3: M is_parallel_to N
proof
take v;
thus thesis by Th9;
end;
N = union {M - {u} where u is VECTOR of V : u in M} by A1,Th19
.= L by Th18;
hence thesis by A3,A2,RUSUB_4:26;
end;
begin :: Orthogonality
definition
let V be RealUnitarySpace, W be Subspace of V;
func Ort_Comp W -> strict Subspace of V means
:Def3:
the carrier of it = {v
where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w, v
are_orthogonal};
existence
proof
defpred P[VECTOR of V] means for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,$1
are_orthogonal;
reconsider A = {v where v is VECTOR of V : P[v]} as Subset of V from
DOMAIN_1:sch 7;
A1: for v,u being VECTOR of V st v in A & u in A holds v + u in A
proof
let v,u be VECTOR of V;
assume that
A2: v in A and
A3: u in A;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,(v + u) are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume
A4: w in W;
ex u9 being VECTOR of V st u = u9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w
in W holds w,u9 are_orthogonal by A3;
then w,u are_orthogonal by A4;
then
A5: w .|. u = 0 by BHSP_1:def 3;
ex v9 being VECTOR of V st v = v9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in
W holds w,v9 are_orthogonal by A2;
then w,v are_orthogonal by A4;
then w .|. v = 0 by BHSP_1:def 3;
then w .|. (v+u) = 0 + 0 by A5,BHSP_1:2;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,0.V are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in W;
w .|. 0.V = 0 by BHSP_1:15;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
then
A6: 0.V in A;
for a being Real, v being VECTOR of V st v in A holds a * v in A
proof
let a be Real;
let v be VECTOR of V;
assume v in A;
then
A7: ex v9 being VECTOR of V st v = v9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in
W holds w,v9 are_orthogonal;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,(a*v) are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in W;
then
A8: w,v are_orthogonal by A7;
w .|. (a*v) = a * w .|. v by BHSP_1:3
.= a * 0 by A8,BHSP_1:def 3;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
then A is linearly-closed by A1,RLSUB_1:def 1;
hence thesis by A6,RUSUB_1:29;
end;
uniqueness by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
definition
let V be RealUnitarySpace, M be non empty Subset of V;
func Ort_Comp M -> strict Subspace of V means
:Def4:
the carrier of it = {v
where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w, v
are_orthogonal};
existence
proof
defpred P[VECTOR of V] means for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,$1
are_orthogonal;
reconsider A = {v where v is VECTOR of V : P[v]} as Subset of V from
DOMAIN_1:sch 7;
A1: for v,u being VECTOR of V st v in A & u in A holds v + u in A
proof
let v,u be VECTOR of V;
assume that
A2: v in A and
A3: u in A;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,(v + u) are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume
A4: w in M;
ex u9 being VECTOR of V st u = u9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w
in M holds w,u9 are_orthogonal by A3;
then w,u are_orthogonal by A4;
then
A5: w .|. u = 0 by BHSP_1:def 3;
ex v9 being VECTOR of V st v = v9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in
M holds w,v9 are_orthogonal by A2;
then w,v are_orthogonal by A4;
then w .|. v = 0 by BHSP_1:def 3;
then w .|. (v+u) = 0 + 0 by A5,BHSP_1:2;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,0.V are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in M;
w .|. 0.V = 0 by BHSP_1:15;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
then
A6: 0.V in A;
for a being Real, v being VECTOR of V st v in A holds a * v in A
proof
let a be Real;
let v be VECTOR of V;
assume v in A;
then
A7: ex v9 being VECTOR of V st v = v9 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in
M holds w,v9 are_orthogonal;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,(a*v) are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in M;
then
A8: w,v are_orthogonal by A7;
w .|. (a*v) = a * w .|. v by BHSP_1:3
.= a * 0 by A8,BHSP_1:def 3;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
then A is linearly-closed by A1,RLSUB_1:def 1;
hence thesis by A6,RUSUB_1:29;
end;
uniqueness by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, W being Subspace of V holds 0.V in Ort_Comp W
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,0.V are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in W;
w .|. 0.V = 0 by BHSP_1:15;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
then 0.V in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in W
holds w,v are_orthogonal};
then 0.V in the carrier of Ort_Comp W by Def3;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace holds Ort_Comp (0).V = (Omega).V
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
for x being object st x in the carrier of (Omega).V holds x in the carrier
of Ort_Comp (0).V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of (Omega).V;
then x in (Omega).V;
then x in the UNITSTR of V by RUSUB_1:def 3;
then reconsider x as Element of V;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in (0).V holds w,x are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in (0).V;
then w in the carrier of (0).V;
then w in {0.V} by RUSUB_1:def 2;
then w .|. x = 0.V .|. x by TARSKI:def 1
.= 0 by BHSP_1:14;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
then
x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in (0).
V holds w,v are_orthogonal};
hence thesis by Def3;
end;
then
A1: the carrier of (Omega).V c= the carrier of Ort_Comp (0).V;
for x being object st x in the carrier of Ort_Comp (0).V holds x in the
carrier of (Omega).V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of Ort_Comp (0).V;
then x in Ort_Comp (0).V;
then x in V by RUSUB_1:2;
then x in the carrier of V;
then x in the UNITSTR of V;
then x in (Omega).V by RUSUB_1:def 3;
hence thesis;
end;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp (0).V c= the carrier of (Omega).V;
then the carrier of (Omega).V = the carrier of Ort_Comp (0).V by A1;
hence thesis by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace holds Ort_Comp (Omega).V = (0).V
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
for x being object st x in the carrier of Ort_Comp (Omega).V
holds x in the carrier of (0).V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of Ort_Comp (Omega).V;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in
(Omega).V holds w,v are_orthogonal} by Def3;
then
A1: ex v being VECTOR of V st x = v & for w being VECTOR of V st w in
(Omega).V holds w,v are_orthogonal;
then reconsider x as VECTOR of V;
x in the UNITSTR of V;
then x in (Omega).V by RUSUB_1:def 3;
then x,x are_orthogonal by A1;
then 0 = x .|. x by BHSP_1:def 3;
then x = 0.V by BHSP_1:def 2;
then x in {0.V} by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by RUSUB_1:def 2;
end;
then
A2: the carrier of Ort_Comp (Omega).V c= the carrier of (0).V;
for x being object st x in the carrier of (0).V holds x in the carrier of
Ort_Comp (Omega).V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of (0).V;
then
A3: x in {0.V} by RUSUB_1:def 2;
then reconsider x as VECTOR of V;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in (Omega).V holds w,x are_orthogonal
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume w in (Omega).V;
w .|. x = w .|. 0.V by A3,TARSKI:def 1
.= 0 by BHSP_1:15;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 3;
end;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in
(Omega).V holds w,v are_orthogonal};
hence thesis by Def3;
end;
then the carrier of (0).V c= the carrier of Ort_Comp (Omega).V;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp (Omega).V = the carrier of (0).V by A2;
hence thesis by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, W being Subspace of V, v being VECTOR of
V st v <> 0.V holds v in W implies not v in Ort_Comp W
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
assume
A1: v <> 0.V;
v in W implies not v in Ort_Comp W
proof
assume
A2: v in W;
assume v in Ort_Comp W;
then v in the carrier of Ort_Comp W;
then v in {v1 where v1 is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in W
holds w,v1 are_orthogonal} by Def3;
then ex v1 being VECTOR of V st v = v1 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in W
holds w,v1 are_orthogonal;
then v,v are_orthogonal by A2;
then 0 = v .|. v by BHSP_1:def 3;
hence contradiction by A1,BHSP_1:def 2;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th25:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being non empty Subset of V
holds M c= the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M be non empty Subset of V;
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in M;
then reconsider x as VECTOR of V;
for y being VECTOR of V st y in Ort_Comp M holds x,y are_orthogonal
proof
let y be VECTOR of V;
assume y in Ort_Comp M;
then y in the carrier of Ort_Comp M;
then y in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in M
holds w, v are_orthogonal} by Def4;
then ex v being VECTOR of V st y = v & for w being VECTOR of V st w in M
holds w, v are_orthogonal;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in
Ort_Comp M holds w, v are_orthogonal};
hence thesis by Def3;
end;
theorem Th26:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M,N being non empty Subset of V st
M c= N holds the carrier of Ort_Comp N c= the carrier of Ort_Comp M
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M,N be non empty Subset of V;
assume
A1: M c= N;
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of Ort_Comp N;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in N
holds w, v are_orthogonal} by Def4;
then
A2: ex v1 being VECTOR of V st x = v1 & for w being VECTOR of V st w in N
holds w,v1 are_orthogonal;
then reconsider x as VECTOR of V;
for y being VECTOR of V st y in M holds y,x are_orthogonal by A1,A2;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in M
holds w,v are_orthogonal};
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
theorem Th27:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, W being Subspace of V, M being non
empty Subset of V st M = the carrier of W holds Ort_Comp M = Ort_Comp W
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let W be Subspace of V;
let M be non empty Subset of V;
assume
A1: M = the carrier of W;
for x being object st x in the carrier of Ort_Comp W holds x in the
carrier of Ort_Comp M
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of Ort_Comp W;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in W
holds w, v are_orthogonal} by Def3;
then consider v being VECTOR of V such that
A2: x = v and
A3: for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,v are_orthogonal;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,v are_orthogonal
by A1,STRUCT_0:def 5,A3;
then x in {v1 where v1 is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in M
holds w, v1 are_orthogonal} by A2;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
then
A4: the carrier of Ort_Comp W c= the carrier of Ort_Comp M;
for x being object st x in the carrier of Ort_Comp M
holds x in the carrier of Ort_Comp W
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of Ort_Comp M;
then x in {v where v is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in M
holds w, v are_orthogonal} by Def4;
then consider v being VECTOR of V such that
A5: x = v and
A6: for w being VECTOR of V st w in M holds w,v are_orthogonal;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in W holds w,v are_orthogonal
by A1,A6;
then x in {v1 where v1 is VECTOR of V : for w being VECTOR of V st w in W
holds w, v1 are_orthogonal} by A5;
hence thesis by Def3;
end;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp M c= the carrier of Ort_Comp W;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp W = the carrier of Ort_Comp M by A4;
hence thesis by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being non empty Subset of V holds
Ort_Comp M = Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M))
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M be non empty Subset of V;
set N = the carrier of Ort_Comp M;
reconsider N as Subset of V by RUSUB_1:def 1;
reconsider N as non empty Subset of V;
set L = the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M);
reconsider L as Subset of V by RUSUB_1:def 1;
reconsider L as non empty Subset of V;
N c= the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp N) by Th25;
then
A1: N c= the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M)) by Th27;
the carrier of Ort_Comp L c= the carrier of Ort_Comp M by Th25,Th26;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M)) c= the carrier of
Ort_Comp M by Th27;
then the carrier of Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp (Ort_Comp M)) = the carrier of
Ort_Comp M by A1;
hence thesis by RUSUB_1:24;
end;
theorem Th29:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, x,y being VECTOR of V holds ||.x +
y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + ||.y.||^2 & ||.x - y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 - 2 *
x .|. y + ||.y.||^2
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let x,y be VECTOR of V;
A1: x .|. x >= 0 by BHSP_1:def 2;
||.x + y.|| = sqrt ((x + y) .|. (x + y)) by BHSP_1:def 4;
then
A2: sqrt ||.x + y.||^2 = sqrt ((x + y) .|. (x + y)) by BHSP_1:28,SQUARE_1:22;
A3: y .|. y >= 0 by BHSP_1:def 2;
(x + y) .|. (x + y) >= 0 & ||.x + y.||^2 >= 0 by BHSP_1:def 2,XREAL_1:63;
then ||.x + y.||^2 = (x + y) .|. (x + y) by A2,SQUARE_1:28
.= x .|. x + 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by BHSP_1:16
.= (sqrt (x .|. x))^2 + 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by A1,SQUARE_1:def 2
.= ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by BHSP_1:def 4
.= ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + (sqrt (y .|. y))^2 by A3,SQUARE_1:def 2;
hence ||.x + y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + ||.y.||^2 by BHSP_1:def 4;
||.x - y.|| = sqrt ((x - y) .|. (x - y)) by BHSP_1:def 4;
then
A4: sqrt ||.x - y.||^2 = sqrt ((x - y) .|. (x - y)) by BHSP_1:28,SQUARE_1:22;
(x - y) .|. (x - y) >= 0 & ||.x - y.||^2 >= 0 by BHSP_1:def 2,XREAL_1:63;
then ||.x - y.||^2 = (x - y) .|. (x - y) by A4,SQUARE_1:28
.= x .|. x - 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by BHSP_1:18
.= (sqrt (x .|. x))^2 - 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by A1,SQUARE_1:def 2
.= ||.x.||^2 - 2 * x .|. y + y .|. y by BHSP_1:def 4
.= ||.x.||^2 - 2 * x .|. y + (sqrt (y .|. y))^2 by A3,SQUARE_1:def 2;
hence thesis by BHSP_1:def 4;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, x,y being VECTOR of V st x,y
are_orthogonal holds ||.x+y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 + ||.y.||^2
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let x,y be VECTOR of V;
assume x,y are_orthogonal;
then
A1: x .|. y = 0 by BHSP_1:def 3;
||.x + y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + ||.y.||^2 by Th29;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
:: Parallelogram Law
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, x,y being VECTOR of V holds ||.x+y.||^2
+ ||.x-y.||^2 = 2*||.x.||^2 + 2*||.y.||^2
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let x,y being VECTOR of V;
||.x+y.||^2 + ||.x-y.||^2 = ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + ||.y.||^2 + ||.x-y
.||^2 by Th29
.= ||.x.||^2 + 2 * x .|. y + ||.y.||^2 + (||.x.||^2 - 2 * x .|. y + ||.y
.||^2) by Th29
.= ||.x.||^2 + ||.x.||^2 + 2*||.y.||^2;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V ex W being Subspace
of V st the carrier of W = {u where u is VECTOR of V : u .|. v = 0}
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
set M = {u where u is VECTOR of V : u.|.v = 0};
for x being object st x in M holds x in the carrier of V
proof
let x be object;
assume x in M;
then ex u being VECTOR of V st x = u & u.|.v = 0;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider M as Subset of V by TARSKI:def 3;
0.V .|. v = 0 by BHSP_1:14;
then
A1: 0.V in M;
then reconsider M as non empty Subset of V;
for x,y being VECTOR of V, a being Real st x in M & y in M
holds (1-a)*x + a*y in M
proof
let x,y be VECTOR of V;
let a be Real;
assume that
A2: x in M and
A3: y in M;
consider u2 being VECTOR of V such that
A4: y = u2 and
A5: u2 .|. v = 0 by A3;
consider u1 being VECTOR of V such that
A6: x = u1 and
A7: u1 .|. v = 0 by A2;
((1-a)*u1 + a*u2) .|. v = ((1-a)*u1) .|. v + (a*u2).|. v by BHSP_1:def 2
.= (1-a)*(u1.|.v) + (a*u2).|.v by BHSP_1:def 2
.= a*0 by A7,A5,BHSP_1:def 2;
hence thesis by A6,A4;
end;
then reconsider M as non empty Affine Subset of V by RUSUB_4:def 4;
take Lin(M);
thus thesis by A1,RUSUB_4:28;
end;
begin :: Topology of Real Unitary Space
definition
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
func Family_open_set(V) -> Subset-Family of V means
:Def5:
for M being Subset of V holds M in it
iff for x being Point of V st x in M
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= M;
existence
proof
defpred P[Subset of V] means for x being Point of V st x in $1
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= $1;
ex F being Subset-Family of V st for M being Subset of V holds M in F
iff P[M] from SUBSET_1:sch 3;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let FX,GX be Subset-Family of V;
assume
A1: for M being Subset of V holds M in FX iff for x being Point of V
st x in M holds ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= M;
assume
A2: for N being Subset of V holds N in GX iff for y being Point of V
st y in N holds ex p being Real st p>0 & Ball(y,p) c= N;
for Y being Subset of V holds Y in FX iff Y in GX
proof
let Y be Subset of V;
A3: now
assume Y in GX;
then for x being Point of V st x in Y
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= Y by A2;
hence Y in FX by A1;
end;
now
assume Y in FX;
then for x being Point of V st x in Y
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= Y by A1;
hence Y in GX by A2;
end;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
hence thesis by SETFAM_1:31;
end;
end;
theorem Th33:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being Point of V, r,p being Real
st r <= p holds Ball(v,r) c= Ball(v,p)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be Point of V;
let r,p be Real;
assume
A1: r <= p;
for u being Point of V st u in Ball(v,r) holds u in Ball(v,p)
proof
let u be Point of V;
assume u in Ball(v,r);
then dist(v,u) < r by BHSP_2:41;
then dist(v,u) + r < r + p by A1,XREAL_1:8;
then dist(v,u) < r + p - r by XREAL_1:20;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:41;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th34:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being Point of V
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(v,r) c= the carrier of V
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be Point of V;
take r = 1;
thus r > 0;
thus thesis;
end;
theorem Th35:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v,u being Point of V, r being Real
st u in Ball(v,r)
ex p being Real st p>0 & Ball(u,p) c= Ball(v,r)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v,u be Point of V;
let r be Real;
assume u in Ball(v,r);
then
A1: dist(v,u) < r by BHSP_2:41;
thus thesis
proof
set p = r - dist(v,u);
take p;
thus p > 0 by A1,XREAL_1:50;
for w being Point of V holds w in Ball(u,p) implies w in Ball(v,r)
proof
let w be Point of V;
assume w in Ball(u,p);
then dist(u,w) < r - dist(v,u) by BHSP_2:41;
then
A2: dist(v,u) + dist(u,w) < r by XREAL_1:20;
dist(v,u) + dist(u,w) >= dist(v,w) by BHSP_1:35;
then dist(v,w) < r by A2,XXREAL_0:2;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:41;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, u,v,w being Point of V,
r,p being Real
st v in Ball(u,r) /\ Ball(w,p)
ex q being Real st Ball(v,q) c= Ball(u,r)
& Ball(v,q) c= Ball(w,p)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let u,v,w be Point of V;
let r,p being Real;
assume
A1: v in Ball(u,r) /\ Ball(w,p);
then v in Ball(u,r) by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider s being Real such that
s > 0 and
A2: Ball(v,s) c= Ball(u,r) by Th35;
v in Ball(w,p) by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider t being Real such that
t > 0 and
A3: Ball(v,t) c= Ball(w,p) by Th35;
take q = min(s,t);
Ball(v,q) c= Ball(v,s) by Th33,XXREAL_0:17;
hence Ball(v,q) c= Ball(u,r) by A2;
Ball(v,q) c= Ball(v,t) by Th33,XXREAL_0:17;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
theorem Th37:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being Point of V, r being Real
holds Ball(v,r) in Family_open_set(V)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be Point of V;
let r be Real;
for u being Point of V st u in Ball(v,r)
ex p being Real st p>0 &
Ball(u,p) c= Ball(v,r) by Th35;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
theorem Th38:
for V being RealUnitarySpace holds the carrier of V in Family_open_set(V)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
the carrier of V c= the carrier of V & for v being Point of V st v in
the carrier of V
ex p being Real st p>0 & Ball(v,p) c= the carrier of V
by Th34;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
theorem Th39:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M,N being Subset of V st M in
Family_open_set(V) & N in Family_open_set(V) holds M /\ N in Family_open_set(V)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M,N be Subset of V;
assume that
A1: M in Family_open_set(V) and
A2: N in Family_open_set(V);
for v being Point of V st v in M /\ N
ex q being Real st q>0 & Ball(v,q)
c= M /\ N
proof
let v be Point of V;
assume
A3: v in M /\ N;
then v in M by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider p being Real such that
A4: p > 0 and
A5: Ball(v,p) c= M by A1,Def5;
v in N by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider r being Real such that
A6: r > 0 and
A7: Ball(v,r) c= N by A2,Def5;
take q = min(p,r);
thus q > 0 by A4,A6,XXREAL_0:15;
Ball(v,q) c= Ball(v,r) by Th33,XXREAL_0:17;
then
A8: Ball(v,q) c= N by A7;
Ball(v,q) c= Ball(v,p) by Th33,XXREAL_0:17;
then Ball(v,q) c= M by A5;
hence thesis by A8,XBOOLE_1:19;
end;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
theorem Th40:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, A being Subset-Family of V st A c=
Family_open_set(V) holds union A in Family_open_set(V)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let A be Subset-Family of V;
assume
A1: A c= Family_open_set(V);
for x being Point of V st x in union A
ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(x,r) c= union A
proof
let x be Point of V;
assume x in union A;
then consider W being set such that
A2: x in W and
A3: W in A by TARSKI:def 4;
reconsider W as Subset of V by A3;
consider r being Real such that
A4: r>0 and
A5: Ball(x,r) c= W by A1,A2,A3,Def5;
take r;
thus r > 0 by A4;
W c= union A by A3,ZFMISC_1:74;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
hence thesis by Def5;
end;
theorem Th41:
for V being RealUnitarySpace holds TopStruct (#the carrier of V,
Family_open_set(V)#) is TopSpace
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
set T = TopStruct (#the carrier of V,Family_open_set(V)#);
A1: for p,q being Subset of T st p in the topology of T & q in the topology
of T holds p /\ q in the topology of T by Th39;
the carrier of T in the topology of T & for a being Subset-Family of T
st a c= the topology of T holds union a in the topology of T by Th38,Th40;
hence thesis by A1,PRE_TOPC:def 1;
end;
definition
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
func TopUnitSpace V -> TopStruct equals
TopStruct (#the carrier of V,
Family_open_set(V)#);
coherence;
end;
registration
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
cluster TopUnitSpace V -> TopSpace-like;
coherence by Th41;
end;
registration
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
cluster TopUnitSpace V -> non empty;
coherence;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace V st M =
[#]V holds M is open & M is closed
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M be Subset of TopUnitSpace V;
A1: [#](TopUnitSpace V) = the carrier of (TopStruct(#the carrier of V,
Family_open_set(V)#));
assume M = [#]V;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace V st M =
{}V holds M is open & M is closed;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st the
carrier of V = {0.V} & r <> 0 holds Sphere(v,r) is empty
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume that
A1: the carrier of V = {0.V} and
A2: r <> 0;
assume Sphere(v,r) is non empty;
then consider x being object such that
A3: x in Sphere(v,r);
Sphere(v,r) = {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| = r} by BHSP_2:def 7;
then consider w being Point of V such that
x = w and
A4: ||.v-w.|| = r by A3;
v-w <> 0.V by A2,A4,BHSP_1:26;
hence contradiction by A1,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st the
carrier of V <> {0.V} & r > 0 holds Sphere(v,r) is non empty
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume that
A1: the carrier of V <> {0.V} and
A2: r > 0;
now
per cases;
suppose
A3: v = 0.V;
ex u being VECTOR of V st u <> 0.V
proof
not the carrier of V c= {0.V} by A1;
then NonZero V <> {} by XBOOLE_1:37;
then consider u being object such that
A4: u in NonZero V by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A5: not u in {0.V} by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
reconsider u as VECTOR of V by A4;
take u;
thus thesis by A5,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
then consider u being VECTOR of V such that
A6: u <> 0.V;
set a = ||.u.||;
A7: a <> 0 by A6,BHSP_1:26;
set u9 = r*(1/a)*u;
A8: a >= 0 by BHSP_1:28;
||.v-u9.|| = ||. -r*(1/a)*u .|| by A3
.= ||. r*(1/a)*u .|| by BHSP_1:31
.= |.r*(1/a).|*||.u.|| by BHSP_1:27;
then ||.v-u9.|| = r*(1/a)*||.u.|| by A2,A8,ABSVALUE:def 1
.= r by A7,XCMPLX_1:109;
then u9 in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| = r};
hence thesis by BHSP_2:def 7;
end;
suppose
A9: v <> 0.V;
set a = ||.v.||;
A10: a <> 0 by A9,BHSP_1:26;
set u9 = (1-r/a)*v;
A11: ||.v-u9.|| = ||. 1*v - (1-r/a)*v .|| by RLVECT_1:def 8
.= ||. (1-(1-r/a))*v .|| by RLVECT_1:35
.= |.r/a.|*||.v.|| by BHSP_1:27;
a >= 0 by BHSP_1:28;
then ||.v-u9.|| = r/a*a by A2,A11,ABSVALUE:def 1
.= r/(a/a) by XCMPLX_1:81
.= r by A10,XCMPLX_1:51;
then u9 in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| = r};
hence thesis by BHSP_2:def 7;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st r =
0 holds Ball(v,r) is empty
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume
A1: r = 0;
assume Ball(v,r) is non empty;
then consider u being object such that
A2: u in Ball(v,r);
u in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| < r} by A2,BHSP_2:def 5;
then ex w being Point of V st u = w & ||.v - w.|| < r;
hence contradiction by A1,BHSP_1:28;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st the
carrier of V = {0.V} & r > 0 holds Ball(v,r) = {0.V}
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume that
A1: the carrier of V = {0.V} and
A2: r > 0;
for w being VECTOR of V st w in {0.V} holds w in Ball(v,r)
proof
let w be VECTOR of V;
assume
A3: w in {0.V};
v = 0.V by A1,TARSKI:def 1;
then ||.v-w.|| = ||. 0.V-0.V .|| by A3,TARSKI:def 1
.= ||. 0.V .||
.= 0 by BHSP_1:26;
then w in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| < r} by A2;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:def 5;
end;
then {0.V} c= Ball(v,r);
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st the
carrier of V <> {0.V} & r > 0 ex w being VECTOR of V st w <> v & w in Ball(v,r)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume that
A1: the carrier of V <> {0.V} and
A2: r > 0;
consider r9 being Real such that
A3: 0 < r9 and
A4: r9 < r by A2,XREAL_1:5;
reconsider r9 as Real;
now
per cases;
suppose
A5: v = 0.V;
ex w being VECTOR of V st w <> 0.V & ||.w.|| < r
proof
not the carrier of V c= {0.V} by A1;
then NonZero V <> {} by XBOOLE_1:37;
then consider u being object such that
A6: u in NonZero V by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A7: not u in {0.V} by A6,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
reconsider u as VECTOR of V by A6;
A8: u <> 0.V by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A9: ||.u.|| <> 0 by BHSP_1:26;
set a = ||.u.||;
A10: ||.u.|| >= 0 by BHSP_1:28;
take w = (r9/a)*u;
A11: ||.w.|| = |.r9/a.|*||.u.|| by BHSP_1:27
.= (r9/a)*||.u.|| by A3,A10,ABSVALUE:def 1
.= r9/(a/a) by XCMPLX_1:81
.= r9 by A9,XCMPLX_1:51;
r9/a > 0 by A3,A9,A10,XREAL_1:139;
hence thesis by A4,A8,A11,RLVECT_1:11;
end;
then consider u being VECTOR of V such that
A12: u <> 0.V and
A13: ||.u.|| < r;
||.v-u.|| = ||. -u .|| by A5
.= ||. u .|| by BHSP_1:31;
then u in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| < r} by A13;
then u in Ball(v,r) by BHSP_2:def 5;
hence thesis by A5,A12;
end;
suppose
A14: v <> 0.V;
set a = ||.v.||;
A15: a <> 0 by A14,BHSP_1:26;
set u9 = (1-r9/a)*v;
A16: ||.v-u9.|| = ||. 1*v - (1-r9/a)*v .|| by RLVECT_1:def 8
.= ||. (1-(1-r9/a))*v .|| by RLVECT_1:35
.= |.r9/a.|*||.v.|| by BHSP_1:27;
a >= 0 by BHSP_1:28;
then
A17: ||.v-u9.|| = r9/a*a by A3,A16,ABSVALUE:def 1
.= r9/(a/a) by XCMPLX_1:81
.= r9 by A15,XCMPLX_1:51;
then v - u9 <> 0.V by A3,BHSP_1:26;
then
A18: v <> u9 by RLVECT_1:15;
u9 in {y where y is Point of V : ||.v - y.|| < r} by A4,A17;
then u9 in Ball(v,r) by BHSP_2:def 5;
hence thesis by A18;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace holds the carrier of V = the carrier of
TopUnitSpace V & the topology of TopUnitSpace V = Family_open_set V;
theorem Th50:
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace(V),
r being Real, v being Point of V st M = Ball(v,r) holds M is open
by Th37;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace(V) holds
M is open iff
for v being Point of V st v in M ex r being Real st r>0 & Ball(v,
r) c= M
by Def5;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, v1,v2 being Point of V, r1,r2 being Real
ex u being Point of V, r being Real st Ball(v1,r1) \/ Ball(v2,r2) c= Ball(u,r)
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let v1,v2 be Point of V;
let r1,r2 be Real;
reconsider u = v1 as Point of V;
reconsider r = |.r1.| + |.r2.| + dist(v1,v2) as Real;
take u;
take r;
let a be object;
assume
A1: a in (Ball(v1,r1) \/ Ball(v2,r2));
then reconsider a as Point of V;
now
per cases by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
case
a in Ball(v1,r1);
then
A2: dist(u,a) < r1 by BHSP_2:41;
r1 <= |.r1.| & 0 <= |.r2.| by ABSVALUE:4,COMPLEX1:46;
then
A3: r1 + 0 <= |.r1.| + |.r2.| by XREAL_1:7;
0 <= dist(v1,v2) by BHSP_1:37;
then r1 + 0 <= |.r1.| + |.r2.| + dist(v1,v2) by A3,XREAL_1:7;
then dist(u,a) - r < r1 - r1 by A2,XREAL_1:14;
then dist(u,a) - r + r < 0 + r by XREAL_1:8;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:41;
end;
case
a in Ball(v2,r2);
then dist(v2,a) < r2 by BHSP_2:41;
then dist(v2,a) - |.r2.| < r2 - r2 by ABSVALUE:4,XREAL_1:14;
then dist(v2,a) - |.r2.| + |.r2.| < 0 + |.r2.| by XREAL_1:8;
then dist(u,a) - |.r2.| < dist(v1,v2) + dist(v2,a) - dist(v2,a ) by
BHSP_1:35,XREAL_1:15;
then dist(u,a) - |.r2.| - |.r1.| < dist(v1,v2) - 0 by COMPLEX1:46
,XREAL_1:14;
then
dist(u,a) - (|.r1.| + |.r2.|) + (|.r1.| + |.r2.|) < |.r1.| +
|.r2.| + dist(v1,v2) by XREAL_1:8;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:41;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th53: :: TOPREAL6:65
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace V,
v being VECTOR of V, r being Real st M = cl_Ball(v,r) holds M is closed
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M be Subset of TopUnitSpace V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
assume
A1: M = cl_Ball(v,r);
for x being set holds x in M` iff ex Q being Subset of TopUnitSpace V st
Q is open & Q c= M` & x in Q
proof
let x be set;
thus x in M` implies ex Q being Subset of TopUnitSpace V st Q is open & Q
c= M` & x in Q
proof
assume
A2: x in M`;
then reconsider e = x as Point of V;
reconsider Q = Ball(e,dist(e,v)-r) as Subset of TopUnitSpace V;
take Q;
thus Q is open by Th50;
thus Q c= M`
proof
let q be object;
assume
A3: q in Q;
then reconsider f = q as Point of V;
dist(e,v) <= dist(e,f) + dist(f,v) by BHSP_1:35;
then
A4: dist(e,v) - r <= dist(e,f) + dist(f,v) - r by XREAL_1:9;
dist(e,f) < dist(e,v)-r by A3,BHSP_2:41;
then dist(e,f) < dist(e,f) + dist(f,v) - r by A4,XXREAL_0:2;
then dist(e,f) - dist(e,f) < dist(e,f) + dist(f,v) - r - dist(e,f) by
XREAL_1:9;
then 0 < dist(e,f) - dist(e,f) + dist(f,v) - r;
then dist(f,v) > r by XREAL_1:47;
then not q in M by A1,BHSP_2:48;
hence thesis by A3,SUBSET_1:29;
end;
not x in M by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then dist(v,e) > r by A1,BHSP_2:48;
then dist(e,v)-r > r-r by XREAL_1:9;
hence thesis by BHSP_2:42;
end;
thus thesis;
end;
then M` is open by TOPS_1:25;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for V being RealUnitarySpace, M being Subset of TopUnitSpace V, v
being VECTOR of V, r being Real st M = Sphere(v,r) holds M is closed
proof
let V be RealUnitarySpace;
let M be Subset of TopUnitSpace V;
let v be VECTOR of V;
let r be Real;
reconsider B = cl_Ball(v,r), C = Ball(v,r) as Subset of TopUnitSpace V;
assume
A1: M = Sphere(v,r);
A2: M` = B` \/ C
proof
hereby
let a be object;
assume
A3: a in M`;
then reconsider e = a as Point of V;
not a in M by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then dist(e,v) <> r by A1,BHSP_2:52;
then dist(e,v) < r or dist(e,v) > r by XXREAL_0:1;
then e in Ball(v,r) or not e in cl_Ball(v,r) by BHSP_2:41,48;
then e in Ball(v,r) or e in cl_Ball(v,r)` by SUBSET_1:29;
hence a in B` \/ C by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
let a be object;
assume
A4: a in B` \/ C;
then reconsider e = a as Point of V;
a in B` or a in C by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then not e in cl_Ball(v,r) or e in C by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then dist(e,v) > r or dist(e,v) < r by BHSP_2:41,48;
then not a in M by A1,BHSP_2:52;
hence thesis by A4,SUBSET_1:29;
end;
B is closed & C is open by Th50,Th53;
hence thesis by A2;
end;