:: Basic Properties of Circulant Matrices and Anti-circular Matrices
:: by Xiaopeng Yue and Xiquan Liang
::
:: Received August 26, 2008
:: Copyright (c) 2008-2021 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, SUBSET_1, VECTSP_1, FINSEQ_1, MATRIX_1, NAT_1, XXREAL_0,
ARYTM_1, INT_1, ARYTM_3, CARD_1, ZFMISC_1, GROUP_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1,
TARSKI, STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, FUNCOP_1, FVSUM_1, SUPINF_2, FINSEQ_2,
TREES_1, XBOOLE_0, QC_LANG1, INCSP_1, PARTFUN1, MESFUNC1, MATRIX16;
notations MATRIX_0, VECTSP_1, GROUP_1, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1,
TARSKI, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, FVSUM_1, FUNCT_1, STRUCT_0, BINOP_1,
XXREAL_0, MATRIX_1, FUNCOP_1, INT_1, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0, MATRIX_3,
MATRIX_4, MATRIX_6, RELAT_1, ALGSTR_0, PARTFUN1, MATRIX13;
constructors REAL_1, MATRIX_6, MATRIX13, POLYNOM1, FVSUM_1, MATRIX_0,
MATRIX_1, MATRIX_4;
registrations STRUCT_0, INT_1, RELSET_1, VECTSP_1, FINSEQ_2, XXREAL_0,
FUNCOP_1, XREAL_0, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, MATRIX_0, MATRIX_6;
requirements REAL, NUMERALS, BOOLE, SUBSET, ARITHM;
equalities MATRIX_0, MATRIX_3, FVSUM_1, MATRIX_4, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2,
ALGSTR_0, MATRIX_1;
theorems MATRIX_5, MATRIX_3, FINSEQ_1, FUNCT_1, ZFMISC_1, POLYNOM1, NAT_1,
RLVECT_1, INT_1, VECTSP_1, FVSUM_1, MATRIX_0, FINSEQ_2, FUNCOP_1,
MATRIXR1, XREAL_1, XXREAL_0, VECTSP_2, PARTFUN1, FINTOPO5, CARD_1, NAT_D,
MATRIX_1;
begin :: Basic Properties of Circulant Matrices
reserve i,j,k,n,l for Element of NAT,
K for Field,
a,b,c for Element of K,
p ,q for FinSequence of K,
M1,M2,M3 for Matrix of n,K;
Lm1: for k being Nat st k <= n & k >= 1 holds k-1 mod n=k-1
proof
let k be Nat;
assume that
A1: k <= n and
A2: k >= 1;
A3: k-1>=1-1 by A2,XREAL_1:9;
A4: n-1 < n by XREAL_1:44;
k-1 <= n-1 by A1,XREAL_1:9;
then k-1 < n by A4,XXREAL_0:2;
hence thesis by A3,NAT_D:63;
end;
Lm2: for n,i,j be Nat st i in Seg n & j in Seg n holds (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n
proof
let n,i,j be Nat;
assume that
A1: i in Seg n and
A2: j in Seg n;
i <= n & 1 <= j by A1,A2,FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A3: 1-n<=j-i by XREAL_1:13;
1 <= i & j <= n by A1,A2,FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A4: j-i <= n-1 by XREAL_1:13;
-n<=-n+1 by XREAL_1:29;
then
A5: -n<=j-i by A3,XXREAL_0:2;
n-1 < n by XREAL_1:44;
then
A6: j-i< n by A4,XXREAL_0:2;
j-i mod n <=n-1
proof
per cases;
suppose
0 <=j-i;
hence thesis by A4,A6,NAT_D:63;
end;
suppose
A7: 0 >j-i;
then j-i<=-1 by INT_1:8;
then n+(j-i)<=n+-1 by XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A5,A7,NAT_D:63;
end;
end;
then
A8: (j-i mod n)+1 <=n-1+1 by XREAL_1:6;
n > 0 by A1,FINTOPO5:2;
then j-i mod n >=0 by NAT_D:62;
then (j-i mod n)+1>=0+1 & (j-i mod n)+1 in NAT by INT_1:3,XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A8;
end;
Lm3: for n,i,j be Nat holds ([i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] or [j,i] in [:Seg n,
Seg n:]) implies (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n
proof
let n,i,j be Nat;
assume [i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] or [j,i] in [:Seg n, Seg n:];
then i in Seg n & j in Seg n by ZFMISC_1:87;
hence thesis by Lm2;
end;
theorem
(1_K)*p=p
proof
A1: dom p =Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A2: Seg len ((1_K)*p)=Seg len p & dom ((1_K)*p)=Seg len ((1_K)*p) by
FINSEQ_1:def 3,MATRIXR1:16;
for i being Nat st i in dom p holds ((1_K)*p).i=p.i
proof
let i be Nat;
A3: rng p c= the carrier of K by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
assume
A4: i in dom p;
then
A5: p.i in dom((the multF of K)[;]((1_K),id the carrier of K)) by A2,A1,
FUNCT_1:11;
p.i in rng p by A4,FUNCT_1:3;
then reconsider b=p.i as Element of K by A3;
((1_K)*p).i=((1_K) multfield).(p.i) by A4,FUNCT_1:13
.=(the multF of K).((1_K),(id the carrier of K).(p.i)) by A5,FUNCOP_1:32
.=(1_K)*b
.=p.i;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A2,A1,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
theorem
(-1_K)*p=-p
proof
A1: Seg len ((-1_K)*p)=Seg len p & dom ((-1_K)*p)=Seg len ((-1_K)*p) by
FINSEQ_1:def 3,MATRIXR1:16;
A2: dom p =Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A3: for i being Nat st i in dom p holds ((-1_K)*p).i=(-p).i
proof
let i be Nat;
A4: rng p c= the carrier of K by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
assume
A5: i in dom p;
then
A6: p.i in dom((the multF of K)[;]((-1_K),id the carrier of K)) by A1,A2,
FUNCT_1:11;
p.i in rng p by A5,FUNCT_1:3;
then reconsider b=p.i as Element of K by A4;
(-1_K)*b+b=(-(1_K))*b+(1_K)*b
.=(-(1_K) + (1_K))*b by VECTSP_1:def 7
.=(0.K)*b by RLVECT_1:5
.=0.K;
then (-1_K)*b+(b+-b)=0.K+-b by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then 0.K + -b=(-(1_K))*b + 0.K by RLVECT_1:5
.=(-(1_K))*b by RLVECT_1:4;
then
A7: (-1_K)*b=-b by RLVECT_1:4;
((-1_K)*p).i=((-1_K) multfield).(p.i) by A5,FUNCT_1:13
.=(the multF of K).((-1_K),(id the carrier of K).(p.i)) by A6,FUNCOP_1:32
.=(the multF of K).(-1_K,b)
.=(comp K).b by A7,VECTSP_1:def 13
.=(-p).i by A5,FUNCT_1:13;
hence thesis;
end;
p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A8: len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
dom (-p)=Seg len (-p) & dom p=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,A3,A8,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
definition
let K be set;
let M be Matrix of K;
let p be FinSequence;
pred M is_line_circulant_about p means
len p = width M & for i,j be
Nat st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j) = p.((j-i mod len p)+1);
end;
definition
let K be set;
let M be Matrix of K;
attr M is line_circulant means
ex p being FinSequence of K st len p= width M & M is_line_circulant_about p;
end;
definition
let K be non empty set;
let p be FinSequence of K;
attr p is first-line-of-circulant means
ex M being Matrix of len p,K st M is_line_circulant_about p;
end;
definition
let K be set;
let M be Matrix of K;
let p be FinSequence;
pred M is_col_circulant_about p means
len p = len M & for i,j be Nat
st [i,j] in Indices M holds M*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1);
end;
definition
let K be set;
let M be Matrix of K;
attr M is col_circulant means
ex p being FinSequence of K st len p = len M & M is_col_circulant_about p;
end;
definition
let K be non empty set;
let p be FinSequence of K;
attr p is first-col-of-circulant means
ex M being Matrix of len p,K st M is_col_circulant_about p;
end;
definition
let K be non empty set, p be FinSequence of K;
assume
A1: p is first-line-of-circulant;
func LCirc(p) -> Matrix of len p,K means
:Def7:
it is_line_circulant_about p;
existence by A1;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of len p,K;
assume that
A2: M1 is_line_circulant_about p and
A3: M2 is_line_circulant_about p;
A4: Indices M1=Indices M2 by MATRIX_0:26;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=M2*(i,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A5: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2;
hence thesis by A3,A4,A5;
end;
hence thesis by MATRIX_0:27;
end;
end;
definition
let K be non empty set, p be FinSequence of K;
assume
A1: p is first-col-of-circulant;
func CCirc(p) -> Matrix of len p,K means
:Def8:
it is_col_circulant_about p;
existence by A1;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of len p,K;
assume that
A2: M1 is_col_circulant_about p and
A3: M2 is_col_circulant_about p;
A4: Indices M1=Indices M2 by MATRIX_0:26;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=M2*(i,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A5: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1) by A2;
hence thesis by A3,A4,A5;
end;
hence thesis by MATRIX_0:27;
end;
end;
registration
let K be Field;
cluster first-line-of-circulant first-col-of-circulant for FinSequence of K;
existence
proof
A1: 0.(K,1,1)=1 |-> (1 |-> 0.K);
set M1=0.(K,1);
take p=1|->0.K;
A2: len (1|-> 0.K)= 1 by CARD_1:def 7;
A3: Indices (0.(K,1)) = [:Seg 1, Seg 1:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A4: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A5: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then (i-j mod 1)+1 in Seg 1 by A3,Lm3;
then (Seg 1 --> 0.K).((i-j mod 1)+1)=0.K by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A2,A1,A5,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p )+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A7: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then (j-i mod 1)+1 in Seg 1 by A3,Lm3;
then (Seg 1 --> 0.K).((j-i mod 1)+1)=0.K by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A2,A1,A7,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
width (0.(K,1))=1 by MATRIX_0:24;
then M1 is_line_circulant_about p by A2,A6;
hence p is first-line-of-circulant by A2;
len (0.(K,1))=1 by MATRIX_0:24;
then M1 is_col_circulant_about p by A2,A4;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
end;
registration
let K,n;
cluster 0.(K,n) -> line_circulant col_circulant;
coherence
proof
set p=n|-> 0.K;
A1: len (0.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
A2: 0.(K,n,n)=n |-> (n |-> 0.K);
set M1=0.(K,n);
A3: len (n|-> 0.K)= n by CARD_1:def 7;
A4: Indices (0.(K,n)) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A5: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then (i-j mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,Lm3;
then (i-j mod len p)+1 in Seg n by CARD_1:def 7;
then (Seg n --> 0.K).((i-j mod len p)+1)=0.K by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A2,A5,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
then
A6: M1 is_col_circulant_about p by A1,A3;
A7: width (0.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
thus M1 is line_circulant
proof
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len
p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A8: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,Lm3;
then (Seg n --> 0.K).((j-i mod n)+1)=0.K by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A3,A2,A8,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
then M1 is_line_circulant_about p by A7,A3;
then consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A9: len p =width M1 & M1 is_line_circulant_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A9;
end;
consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A10: len p =len M1 & M1 is_col_circulant_about p by A6;
take p;
thus thesis by A10;
end;
end;
registration
let K;
let n;
let a be Element of K;
cluster (n,n)-->a -> line_circulant for Matrix of n,K;
coherence
proof
set p=n|->a;
A1: width ((n,n)-->a)=n & len p =n by CARD_1:def 7,MATRIX_0:24;
A2: Indices ((n,n)-->a)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices ((n,n)-->a) holds ((n,n)-->a)*(i,j)
=p.((j-i mod len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A3: [i,j] in Indices ((n,n)-->a);
then (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A2,Lm3;
then (j-i mod len p)+1 in Seg n by CARD_1:def 7;
then (Seg n --> a).((j-i mod len p)+1)=a by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A3,MATRIX_0:46;
end;
then (n,n)-->a is_line_circulant_about p by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
cluster (n,n)-->a -> col_circulant for Matrix of n,K;
coherence
proof
set M1=(n,n)-->a;
set p=n|->a;
A4: len ((n,n)-->a)=n & len p =n by CARD_1:def 7;
A5: Indices ((n,n)-->a)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A6: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then (i-j mod n)+1 in Seg n by A5,Lm3;
then (i-j mod len p)+1 in Seg n by CARD_1:def 7;
then (Seg n --> a).((i-j mod len p)+1)=a by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A6,MATRIX_0:46;
end;
then M1 is_col_circulant_about p by A4;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
registration
let K;
cluster line_circulant col_circulant for Matrix of K;
existence
proof
take (1,1)-->0.K;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
reserve D for non empty set,
t for FinSequence of D,
A for Matrix of n,D;
theorem
A is line_circulant & n>0 implies A@ is col_circulant
proof
assume that
A1: A is line_circulant and
A2: n>0;
consider p being FinSequence of D such that
A3: len p=width A and
A4: A is_line_circulant_about p by A1;
width A=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A5: len (A@)=len p by A2,A3,MATRIX_0:54;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices A@ holds A@*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+ 1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A6: Indices A = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
assume [i,j] in Indices A@;
then [i,j] in Indices A by MATRIX_0:26;
then i in Seg n & j in Seg n by A6,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A7: [j,i] in Indices A by A6,ZFMISC_1:87;
then A@*(i,j) = A*(j,i) by MATRIX_0:def 6;
hence thesis by A4,A7;
end;
then A@ is_col_circulant_about p by A5;
then consider p being FinSequence of D such that
A8: len p = len (A@) & A@ is_col_circulant_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A8;
end;
theorem
A is_line_circulant_about t & n>0 implies t = Line(A,1)
proof
assume that
A1: A is_line_circulant_about t and
A2: n>0;
A3: width A=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A4: dom t=Seg len t & len t=n by A1,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A5: for k be Nat st k in dom t holds t.k = Line(A,1).k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume
A6: k in dom t;
then
A7: 1 <= k & k <= n by A4,FINSEQ_1:1;
n >=0+1 by A2,INT_1:7;
then 1 in Seg n;
then [1,k] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] by A4,A6,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
then
A8: [1,k] in Indices A by MATRIX_0:24;
Line(A,1).k=A*(1,k) by A3,A4,A6,MATRIX_0:def 7
.=t.((k-1 mod len t)+1) by A1,A8
.=t.((k-1 mod n)+1) by A1,A3
.=t.(k-1+1) by A7,Lm1;
hence thesis;
end;
len Line(A,1)=n by A3,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then dom Line(A,1)=dom t by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A5,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
theorem
A is line_circulant & [i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] & k=i+1 & l=j+1 & i0 implies A@ is line_circulant
proof
assume that
A1: A is col_circulant and
A2: n>0;
consider p being FinSequence of D such that
A3: len p=len A and
A4: A is_col_circulant_about p by A1;
width A=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A5: width (A@)=len p by A2,A3,MATRIX_0:54;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices A@ holds A@*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+ 1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A6: Indices A = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
assume [i,j] in Indices A@;
then [i,j] in Indices A by MATRIX_0:26;
then i in Seg n & j in Seg n by A6,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A7: [j,i] in Indices A by A6,ZFMISC_1:87;
then A@*(i,j) = A*(j,i) by MATRIX_0:def 6;
hence thesis by A4,A7;
end;
then A@ is_line_circulant_about p by A5;
then consider p being FinSequence of D such that
A8: len p =width (A@) & A@ is_line_circulant_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A8;
end;
theorem
A is_col_circulant_about t & n>0 implies t = Col(A,1)
proof
assume that
A1: A is_col_circulant_about t and
A2: n>0;
A3: len A=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A4: len t=n by A1;
A5: dom t=Seg len t by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
len Col(A,1)=n by A3,MATRIX_0:def 8;
then
A6: dom Col(A,1)=dom t by A5,A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
for k being Nat st k in dom t holds t.k = Col(A,1).k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume
A7: k in dom t;
then
A8: 1 <= k & k <= n by A5,A4,FINSEQ_1:1;
n >=0+1 by A2,INT_1:7;
then 1 in Seg n;
then [k,1] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] by A5,A4,A7,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
then
A9: [k,1] in Indices A by MATRIX_0:24;
len Col(A,1)=len A by MATRIX_0:def 8;
then dom Col(A,1)=Seg len A by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then k in dom A by A6,A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then Col(A,1).k=A*(k,1) by MATRIX_0:def 8
.=t.((k-1 mod len t)+1) by A1,A9
.=t.(k-1+1) by A4,A8,Lm1;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A6,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
theorem
A is col_circulant & [i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] & k=i+1 & l=j+1 & i0 implies 1.(K,n) is col_circulant
proof
assume
A1: n > 0;
set M1=1.(K,n);
A2: Indices (1.(K,n)) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
set p=Col(M1,1);
A3: len (1.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A4: len p = n by MATRIX_0:def 8;
A5: dom M1= Seg n by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A6: width (1.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+ 1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A7: i-j mod n >=0 by A1,NAT_D:62;
then
A8: (i-j mod n)+1 in NAT by INT_1:3;
assume
A9: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then
A10: j in Seg n by A2,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A11: 1 <= j by FINSEQ_1:1;
A12: j <= n by A10,FINSEQ_1:1;
A13: i in Seg n by A2,A9,ZFMISC_1:87;
then 1 <= i by FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A14: 1-n<=i-j by A12,XREAL_1:13;
-n<=-n+1 by XREAL_1:29;
then
A15: -n<=i-j by A14,XXREAL_0:2;
i <= n by A13,FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A16: i-j <= n-1 by A11,XREAL_1:13;
n-1 < n by XREAL_1:44;
then
A17: i-j< n by A16,XXREAL_0:2;
i-j mod n <=n-1
proof
per cases;
suppose
0 <=i-j;
hence thesis by A16,A17,NAT_D:63;
end;
suppose
A18: 0 >i-j;
then i-j<=-1 by INT_1:8;
then n+(i-j)<=n+-1 by XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A15,A18,NAT_D:63;
end;
end;
then
A19: (i-j mod n)+1 <=n-1+1 by XREAL_1:6;
(i-j mod n)+1>=0+1 by A7,XREAL_1:6;
then
A20: (i-j mod n)+1 in Seg n by A19,A8;
then
A21: (i-j mod len p)+1 in Seg n by A3,MATRIX_0:def 8;
M1*(i,j)=p.((i-j mod len p)+1)
proof
per cases;
suppose
A22: i=j;
0+1<=n by A1,NAT_1:13;
then 1 in Seg n;
then
A23: [1,1] in Indices M1 by A2,ZFMISC_1:87;
i-j mod len p =0 by A1,A4,A22,NAT_D:63;
then p.((i-j mod len p)+1) =M1*(1,1) by A5,A21,MATRIX_0:def 8
.=1_K by A23,MATRIX_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A9,A22,MATRIX_1:def 3;
end;
suppose
A24: i <> j;
then
A25: i-j<>0;
i-j mod n <> 0
proof
per cases;
suppose
0 <=i-j;
hence thesis by A17,A25,NAT_D:63;
end;
suppose
A26: 0 >i-j;
1-n+n<=(i-j)+n by A14,XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A15,A26,NAT_D:63;
end;
end;
then
A27: (i-j mod len p)+1<>1 by A3,MATRIX_0:def 8;
set l=(i-j mod len p)+1;
reconsider l as Nat by A3,A8,MATRIX_0:def 8;
0+1<=n by A1,NAT_1:13;
then
A28: 1 in Seg n;
l in dom M1 by A3,A4,A20,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A29: [l,1] in Indices M1 by A6,A28,ZFMISC_1:87;
p.l=M1*(l,1) by A5,A21,MATRIX_0:def 8
.=0.K by A27,A29,MATRIX_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A9,A24,MATRIX_1:def 3;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
then M1 is_col_circulant_about p by A3,A4;
then consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A30: len p =len M1 & M1 is_col_circulant_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A30;
end;
theorem
n>0 implies 1.(K,n) is line_circulant
proof
set M1=1.(K,n);
set p=Line(M1,1);
assume
A1: n>0;
A2: Indices (1.(K,n))=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A3: width (1.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A4: len p = n by MATRIX_0:def 7;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+ 1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A5: j-i mod n >=0 by A1,NAT_D:62;
then
A6: (j-i mod n)+1 in NAT by INT_1:3;
assume
A7: [i,j] in Indices M1;
then
A8: j in Seg n by A2,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A9: 1 <= j by FINSEQ_1:1;
A10: j <= n by A8,FINSEQ_1:1;
A11: i in Seg n by A2,A7,ZFMISC_1:87;
then 1 <= i by FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A12: j-i <= n-1 by A10,XREAL_1:13;
n-1 < n by XREAL_1:44;
then
A13: j-i< n by A12,XXREAL_0:2;
i <= n by A11,FINSEQ_1:1;
then
A14: 1-n<=j-i by A9,XREAL_1:13;
-n<=-n+1 by XREAL_1:29;
then
A15: -n<=j-i by A14,XXREAL_0:2;
j-i mod n <=n-1
proof
per cases;
suppose
0 <=j-i;
hence thesis by A12,A13,NAT_D:63;
end;
suppose
A16: 0 >j-i;
then j-i<=-1 by INT_1:8;
then n+(j-i)<=n+-1 by XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A15,A16,NAT_D:63;
end;
end;
then
A17: (j-i mod n)+1 <=n-1+1 by XREAL_1:6;
(j-i mod n)+1>=0+1 by A5,XREAL_1:6;
then
A18: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A17,A6;
then
A19: (j-i mod len p)+1 in Seg n by A3,MATRIX_0:def 7;
M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+1)
proof
per cases;
suppose
A20: i=j;
0+1<=n by A1,NAT_1:13;
then 1 in Seg n;
then
A21: [1,1] in Indices M1 by A2,ZFMISC_1:87;
j-i mod len p =0 by A1,A4,A20,NAT_D:63;
then p.((j-i mod len p)+1)=M1*(1,1) by A3,A19,MATRIX_0:def 7
.=1_K by A21,MATRIX_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A7,A20,MATRIX_1:def 3;
end;
suppose
A22: i <> j;
j-i mod n <>0
proof
per cases;
suppose
0 <=j-i;
then j-i mod n=j-i by A13,NAT_D:63;
hence thesis by A22;
end;
suppose
A23: 0 >j-i;
1-n+n<=(j-i)+n by A14,XREAL_1:6;
hence thesis by A15,A23,NAT_D:63;
end;
end;
then
A24: (j-i mod len p)+1<>1 by A3,MATRIX_0:def 7;
set l=(j-i mod len p)+1;
reconsider l as Nat by A3,A6,MATRIX_0:def 7;
0+1<=n by A1,NAT_1:13;
then
A25: 1 in Seg n;
l in Seg n by A3,A18,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then
A26: [1,l] in Indices M1 by A2,A25,ZFMISC_1:87;
p.l =M1*(1,l) by A3,A19,MATRIX_0:def 7
.=0.K by A24,A26,MATRIX_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A7,A22,MATRIX_1:def 3;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
then M1 is_line_circulant_about p by A3,A4;
then consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A27: len p =width M1 & M1 is_line_circulant_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A27;
end;
theorem Th41:
p is first-line-of-circulant implies a*p is first-line-of-circulant
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
assume p is first-line-of-circulant;
then consider M1 being Matrix of n,K such that
A2: M1 is_line_circulant_about p;
A3: Indices (a*M1)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A4: dom p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A5: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(a*p).((j-i
mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A7: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1);
then
A8: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,Lm3;
then
A9: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom (a*p) by A5,MATRIXR1:16;
A10: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A3,A7,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j) =a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A2,A10
.=(a multfield).(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A4,A8,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A4,A8,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 6;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
width (a*M1)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then a*M1 is_line_circulant_about a*p by A1,A6;
then consider M2 being Matrix of len (a*p),K such that
A11: M2 is_line_circulant_about a*p by A1;
take M2;
thus thesis by A11;
end;
theorem Th42:
p is first-line-of-circulant implies LCirc(a*p) =a*(LCirc p)
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
assume
A2: p is first-line-of-circulant;
then a*p is first-line-of-circulant by Th41;
then
A3: LCirc(a*p) is_line_circulant_about a*p by Def7;
A4: Indices LCirc(p) =[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A5: LCirc(p) is_line_circulant_about p by A2,Def7;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices LCirc(p) holds LCirc(a*p)*(i,j)=a*(
LCirc(p)*(i,j))
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A7: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
assume
A8: [i,j] in Indices LCirc(p);
then
A9: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,Lm3;
A10: dom p=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
[i,j] in Indices LCirc(a*p) by A1,A8,MATRIX_0:26;
then LCirc(a*p)*(i,j) =(a*p).((j-i mod len (a*p))+1) by A3
.=(a*p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A1,A9,A7,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A9,A10,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a multfield).(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A9,A10,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a multfield).(LCirc(p)*(i,j)) by A5,A8
.=a*(LCirc(p)*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49;
hence thesis;
end;
A11: len LCirc(p)= len p & width LCirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len LCirc(a*p)= len p & width LCirc(a*p) = len p by A1,MATRIX_0:24;
hence thesis by A11,A6,MATRIX_3:def 5;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-circulant implies a*(LCirc p)+b*(LCirc p)=LCirc((a+ b)*p)
proof
A1: len (b*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
A2: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
assume
A3: p is first-line-of-circulant;
then
A4: a*p is first-line-of-circulant & b*p is first-line-of-circulant by Th41;
a*(LCirc p)=LCirc(a*p) & b*(LCirc p)=LCirc(b*p) by A3,Th42;
then a*(LCirc p)+b*(LCirc p)=LCirc(a*p+b*p) by A4,A1,Th34,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis by A2,FVSUM_1:55;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-circulant & q is first-line-of-circulant & len p =
len q implies a*(LCirc p)+a*(LCirc q)=LCirc(a*(p+q))
proof
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-circulant & q is first-line-of-circulant and
A2: len p=len q;
A3: len LCirc(p)= len p & width LCirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len LCirc(q)= len p & width LCirc(q)=len p by A2,MATRIX_0:24;
then a*(LCirc p)+a*(LCirc q)=a*(LCirc p+LCirc q) by A3,MATRIX_5:20
.=a*(LCirc (p+q)) by A1,A2,Th34
.=LCirc(a*(p+q)) by A1,A2,Th33,Th42;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-circulant & q is first-line-of-circulant & len p =
len q implies a*(LCirc p)+b*(LCirc q)=LCirc(a*p+b*q)
proof
set n = len p;
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-circulant and
A2: q is first-line-of-circulant and
A3: len p = len q;
A4: a*p is first-line-of-circulant & b*q is first-line-of-circulant by A1,A2
,Th41;
A5: len (b*q)=n by A3,MATRIXR1:16;
a*(LCirc p)+b*(LCirc q) = LCirc (a*p)+b*(LCirc q) by A1,Th42
.=LCirc (a*p)+LCirc (b*q) by A2,Th42
.=LCirc(a*p+b*q) by A4,A5,Th34,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th46:
p is first-col-of-circulant implies a*p is first-col-of-circulant
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
assume p is first-col-of-circulant;
then consider M1 being Matrix of n,K such that
A2: M1 is_col_circulant_about p;
A3: Indices (a*M1)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A4: dom p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A5: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(a*p).((i-j
mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A7: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1);
then
A8: (i-j mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,Lm3;
then
A9: (i-j mod len p)+1 in dom (a*p) by A5,MATRIXR1:16;
A10: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A3,A7,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j)=a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by A2,A10
.=(a multfield).(p/.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by A4,A8,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*p)/.((i-j mod len p)+1) by A4,A8,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*p).((i-j mod len p)+1) by A9,PARTFUN1:def 6;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
len (a*M1)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then a*M1 is_col_circulant_about a*p by A1,A6;
then consider M2 being Matrix of len (a*p),K such that
A11: M2 is_col_circulant_about a*p by A1;
take M2;
thus thesis by A11;
end;
theorem Th47:
p is first-col-of-circulant implies CCirc(a*p)=a*(CCirc p)
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
assume
A2: p is first-col-of-circulant;
then a*p is first-col-of-circulant by Th46;
then
A3: CCirc(a*p) is_col_circulant_about a*p by Def8;
A4: Indices CCirc(p) =[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A5: CCirc(p) is_col_circulant_about p by A2,Def8;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices CCirc(p) holds CCirc(a*p)*(i,j)=a*(
CCirc(p)*(i,j))
proof
let i,j be Nat;
A7: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
assume
A8: [i,j] in Indices CCirc(p);
then
A9: (i-j mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,Lm3;
A10: dom p=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
[i,j] in Indices CCirc(a*p) by A1,A8,MATRIX_0:26;
then CCirc(a*p)*(i,j) =(a*p).((i-j mod len (a*p))+1) by A3
.=(a*p)/.((i-j mod len p)+1) by A1,A9,A7,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by A9,A10,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a multfield).(p/.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((i-j mod len p)+1)) by A9,A10,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a multfield).(CCirc(p)*(i,j)) by A5,A8
.=a*(CCirc(p)*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49;
hence thesis;
end;
A11: len CCirc(p)= len p & width CCirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len CCirc(a*p)= len p & width CCirc(a*p) = len p by A1,MATRIX_0:24;
hence thesis by A11,A6,MATRIX_3:def 5;
end;
theorem
p is first-col-of-circulant implies a*(CCirc p)+b*(CCirc p)=CCirc((a+b )*p)
proof
A1: len (b*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
A2: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
assume
A3: p is first-col-of-circulant;
then
A4: a*p is first-col-of-circulant & b*p is first-col-of-circulant by Th46;
a*(CCirc p)=CCirc(a*p) & b*(CCirc p)=CCirc(b*p) by A3,Th47;
then a*(CCirc p)+b*(CCirc p)=CCirc(a*p+b*p) by A4,A1,Th38,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis by A2,FVSUM_1:55;
end;
theorem
p is first-col-of-circulant & q is first-col-of-circulant & len p =
len q & len p > 0 implies a*(CCirc p)+a*(CCirc q)=CCirc(a*(p+q))
proof
assume that
A1: p is first-col-of-circulant & q is first-col-of-circulant and
A2: len p = len q;
A3: len CCirc(p)= len p & width CCirc(p)=len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len CCirc(q)= len p & width CCirc(q)=len p by A2,MATRIX_0:24;
then a*(CCirc p)+a*(CCirc q) =a*(CCirc p+CCirc q) by A3,MATRIX_5:20
.=a*(CCirc (p+q)) by A1,A2,Th38
.=CCirc(a*(p+q)) by A1,A2,Th37,Th47;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
p is first-col-of-circulant & q is first-col-of-circulant & len p =
len q implies a*(CCirc p)+b*(CCirc q)=CCirc(a*p+b*q)
proof
set n = len p;
assume that
A1: p is first-col-of-circulant and
A2: q is first-col-of-circulant and
A3: len p = len q;
A4: a*p is first-col-of-circulant & b*q is first-col-of-circulant by A1,A2,Th46
;
A5: len (b*q)=n by A3,MATRIXR1:16;
a*(CCirc p)+b*(CCirc q)=CCirc (a*p)+b*(CCirc q) by A1,Th47
.=CCirc (a*p)+CCirc (b*q) by A2,Th47
.=CCirc(a*p+b*q) by A4,A5,Th38,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis;
end;
notation
let K be set;
let M be Matrix of K;
synonym M is circulant for M is line_circulant;
end;
begin :: Basic Properties of Anti-circular Matrices
definition
let K be Field;
let M1 be Matrix of K;
let p be FinSequence of K;
pred M1 is_anti-circular_about p means
len p=width M1 & (for i,j be
Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 & i<=j holds M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) & for i
,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 & i>=j holds M1*(i,j)=(-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
;
end;
definition
let K be Field;
let M be Matrix of K;
attr M is anti-circular means
ex p being FinSequence of K st len p= width M & M is_anti-circular_about p;
end;
definition
let K be Field;
let p be FinSequence of K;
attr p is first-line-of-anti-circular means
ex M being Matrix of len p,K st M is_anti-circular_about p;
end;
definition
let K be Field, p be FinSequence of K;
assume
A1: p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
func ACirc(p) -> Matrix of len p,K means
:Def12:
it is_anti-circular_about p;
existence by A1;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Matrix of len p,K;
assume that
A2: M1 is_anti-circular_about p and
A3: M2 is_anti-circular_about p;
A4: Indices M1=Indices M2 by MATRIX_0:26;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1 holds M1*(i,j)=M2*(i,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A5: [i,j] in Indices M1;
per cases;
suppose
A6: i<=j;
then M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A5;
hence thesis by A3,A4,A5,A6;
end;
suppose
A7: i>j;
then M1*(i,j)=(-p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A5;
hence thesis by A3,A4,A5,A7;
end;
end;
hence thesis by MATRIX_0:27;
end;
end;
theorem
M1 is anti-circular implies a*M1 is anti-circular
proof
A1: Indices (a*M1)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
assume M1 is anti-circular;
then consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A2: len p=width M1 and
A3: M1 is_anti-circular_about p;
A4: width M1=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A5: dom p=Seg n by A2,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A6: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A7: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1)&i<=j holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(a*p).
((j-i mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A8: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) and
A9: i<=j;
A10: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A1,A8,Lm3;
then
A11: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom (a*p) by A2,A4,A6,MATRIXR1:16;
A12: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A1,A8,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j) =a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A3,A9,A12
.=(a multfield).(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A2,A4,A5,A10,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A4,A5,A10,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A11,PARTFUN1:def 6;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
A13: width (a*M1)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
A14: len p =n by A2,MATRIX_0:24;
A15: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1)&i>=j holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(-(a*
p)).((j-i mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
len (a*(-p))=len (-p) by MATRIXR1:16;
then
A16: dom (a*(-p))=Seg len (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.=dom (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A17: a*p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by A15,A14,FINSEQ_2:92;
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A18: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) and
A19: i>=j;
A20: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A1,A18,Lm3;
A21: p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by A14,FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by A14,
FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A22: dom (-p)=Seg n by A2,A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A23: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A1,A18,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j)=a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A3,A19,A23
.=(a multfield).((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A2,A4,A20,A22,
PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*(-p))/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A4,A20,A22,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*(-p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A4,A20,A22,A16,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a*((-1_K)*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A21,FVSUM_1:59
.=((a*(-1_K))*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A21,FVSUM_1:54
.=((-a*1_K)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:8
.=((-a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=((-1_K*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=(((-1_K)*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:9
.=((-1_K)*(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A21,FVSUM_1:54
.=(-(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A17,FVSUM_1:59;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
then a*M1 is_anti-circular_about a*p by A13,A15,A14,A7;
then consider q being FinSequence of K such that
A24: len q =width (a*M1) & (a*M1) is_anti-circular_about q;
take q;
thus thesis by A24;
end;
theorem Th52:
M1 is anti-circular & M2 is anti-circular implies M1+M2 is anti-circular
proof
assume that
A1: M1 is anti-circular and
A2: M2 is anti-circular;
consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A3: len p=width M1 and
A4: M1 is_anti-circular_about p by A1;
A5: width M1=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A6: dom p=Seg n by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
consider q being FinSequence of K such that
A7: len q=width M2 and
A8: M2 is_anti-circular_about q by A2;
A9: dom (p+q)=Seg len (p+q) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A10: width M2=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then dom q=Seg n by A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A11: dom (p+q)=dom p by A6,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A12: len (p+q)=n by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A13: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A14: dom -p=Seg n by A3,A5,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A15: Indices M2=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A16: Indices (M1+M2) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A17: Indices M1=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A18: q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-q)=len q by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A19: dom -q=Seg n by A7,A10,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A20: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2)&i>=j holds (M1+M2)*(i,j)=(-(
p+q)).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A21: [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2) and
A22: i>=j;
dom (-p+-q)=dom -p by A14,A19,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A23: (j-i mod len (p+q))+1 in dom (-p+-q) by A16,A6,A9,A14,A11,A21,Lm3;
(M1+M2)*(i,j) =M1*(i,j)+M2*(i,j) by A17,A16,A21,MATRIX_3:def 3
.=(the addF of K).(M1*(i,j),(-q).((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A8,A15,A16,A21
,A22
.=(the addF of K).((-p).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1),(-q).((j-i mod len (p+
q))+1)) by A4,A7,A17,A5,A10,A16,A12,A21,A22
.=(-p+-q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A23,FUNCOP_1:22
.=(-(p+q)).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A3,A7,A13,A18,A5,A10,FVSUM_1:31;
hence thesis;
end;
A24: width (M1+M2)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2)&i<=j holds (M1+M2)*(i,j)=(p+q
).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A25: [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2) and
A26: i<=j;
A27: (j-i mod len (p+q))+1 in dom (p+q) by A16,A6,A9,A11,A25,Lm3;
(M1+M2)*(i,j) =M1*(i,j) + M2*(i,j) by A17,A16,A25,MATRIX_3:def 3
.=(the addF of K).(M1*(i,j),q.((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A8,A15,A16,A25,A26
.=(the addF of K).(p.((j-i mod len (p+q))+1),q.((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
) by A4,A7,A17,A5,A10,A16,A12,A25,A26
.=(p+q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A27,FUNCOP_1:22;
hence thesis;
end;
then M1+M2 is_anti-circular_about p+q by A24,A12,A20;
then consider r being FinSequence of K such that
A28: len r =width (M1+M2) & M1+M2 is_anti-circular_about r;
take r;
thus thesis by A28;
end;
theorem
for K being Fanoian Field, n,i,j being Nat, M1 being Matrix of n,K st
[i,j] in Indices M1 & i=j & M1 is anti-circular holds M1*(i,j)=0.K
proof
let K be Fanoian Field;
let n,i,j be Nat;
let M1 be Matrix of n,K;
assume that
A1: [i,j] in Indices M1 and
A2: i=j and
A3: M1 is anti-circular;
consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A4: len p=width M1 and
A5: M1 is_anti-circular_about p by A3;
A6: M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A1,A2,A5;
A7: width M1=n by MATRIX_0:24;
p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then Indices M1=[:Seg n, Seg n:] & dom -p=Seg n by A4,A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3
,MATRIX_0:24;
then
A8: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom -p by A1,A4,A7,Lm3;
M1*(i,j) =(-p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A1,A2,A5
.=(comp K).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A8,FUNCT_1:12
.=-M1*(i,j) by A6,VECTSP_1:def 13;
then M1*(i,j)+M1*(i,j)=0.K by RLVECT_1:5;
then (1_K)*(M1*(i,j))+M1*(i,j)=0.K;
then (1_K)*(M1*(i,j))+(1_K)*(M1*(i,j))=0.K;
then 1_K+1_K<>0.K & (1_K+1_K)*(M1*(i,j))=0.K by VECTSP_1:def 7,def 19;
hence thesis by VECTSP_1:12;
end;
theorem
M1 is anti-circular & [i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] & k=i+1 & l=j+1 & i=j;
then
A15: i+1>=j+1 by XREAL_1:6;
A16: Indices M1=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
assume that
A17: M1 is anti-circular and
A18: [i,j] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] and
A19: k=i+1 and
A20: l=j+1 and
A21: i=j holds (-M1)*(i,j)=(-r).((
j-i mod len r)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A14: [i,j] in Indices (-M1) and
A15: i>=j;
A16: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A5,A14,Lm3;
(-M1)*(i,j)=-(M1*(i,j)) by A1,A5,A14,MATRIX_3:def 2
.=(comp K).(M1*(i,j)) by VECTSP_1:def 13
.=(comp K).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1) ) by A3,A1,A5,A14,A15
.=(-(-p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A2,A6,A13,A16,FUNCT_1:13;
hence thesis by A4,CARD_1:def 7;
end;
then (-M1) is_anti-circular_about r by A2,A6,A11,A12,A7;
then consider r being FinSequence of K such that
A17: len r =width (-M1) & -M1 is_anti-circular_about r;
take r;
thus thesis by A17;
end;
theorem
M1 is anti-circular & M2 is anti-circular implies M1-M2 is anti-circular
proof
assume that
A1: M1 is anti-circular and
A2: M2 is anti-circular;
-M2 is anti-circular by A2,Th55;
hence thesis by A1,Th52;
end;
theorem
M1 is_anti-circular_about p & n>0 implies p = Line(M1,1)
proof
assume that
A1: M1 is_anti-circular_about p and
A2: n>0;
A3: dom p=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A4: width M1=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then
A5: len p=n by A1;
A6: for k be Nat st k in dom p holds p.k = Line(M1,1).k
proof
let k be Nat;
assume
A7: k in dom p;
then
A8: 1<=k by A3,FINSEQ_1:1;
n>=0+1 by A2,INT_1:7;
then 1 in Seg n;
then [1,k] in [:Seg n, Seg n:] by A3,A5,A7,ZFMISC_1:def 2;
then
A9: [1,k] in Indices M1 by MATRIX_0:24;
A10: k<=n by A3,A5,A7,FINSEQ_1:1;
Line(M1,1).k =M1*(1,k) by A4,A3,A5,A7,MATRIX_0:def 7
.=p.((k-1 mod len p)+1) by A1,A8,A9
.=p.((k-1 mod n)+1) by A1,A4
.=p.(k-1+1) by A8,A10,Lm1;
hence thesis;
end;
len Line(M1,1)=n by A4,MATRIX_0:def 7;
then dom Line(M1,1)=dom p by A3,A5,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A6,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
theorem Th58:
p is first-line-of-anti-circular implies -p is first-line-of-anti-circular
proof
set n=len p;
assume p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
then consider M1 being Matrix of len p,K such that
A1: M1 is_anti-circular_about p;
set M2=-M1;
A2: Indices M1=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A3: Indices (-M1) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then
A4: -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A5: len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A6: dom (-p)=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A7: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (-M1)&i>=j holds (-M1)*(i,j)=(-(-p))
.((j-i mod len (-p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A8: [i,j] in Indices (-M1) and
A9: i>=j;
A10: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,A8,Lm3;
(-M1)*(i,j)=-(M1*(i,j)) by A2,A3,A8,MATRIX_3:def 2
.=(comp K).(M1*(i,j)) by VECTSP_1:def 13
.=(comp K).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1) ) by A1,A2,A3,A8,A9
.=(-(-p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A6,A10,FUNCT_1:13;
hence thesis by A4,CARD_1:def 7;
end;
A11: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (-M1) & i<=j holds (-M1)*(i,j)=(-p).(
(j-i mod len (-p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A12: [i,j] in Indices (-M1) and
A13: i<=j;
(j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,A12,Lm3;
then
A14: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
(-M1)*(i,j)=-(M1*(i,j)) by A2,A3,A12,MATRIX_3:def 2
.=(comp K).(M1*(i,j)) by VECTSP_1:def 13
.=(comp K).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1) ) by A1,A2,A3,A12,A13
.=(-p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A14,FUNCT_1:13;
hence thesis by A4,CARD_1:def 7;
end;
width (-M1)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then M2 is_anti-circular_about -p by A5,A11,A7;
then consider M2 being Matrix of len -p,K such that
A15: M2 is_anti-circular_about -p by A5;
take M2;
thus thesis by A15;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-anti-circular implies ACirc(-p) =-(ACirc(p))
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len ACirc(p)= len p & width ACirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
A2: Indices ACirc(p) =[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A3: len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
assume
A4: p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
then -p is first-line-of-anti-circular by Th58;
then
A5: ACirc(-p) is_anti-circular_about -p by Def12;
A6: ACirc(p) is_anti-circular_about p by A4,Def12;
A7: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p) holds ACirc(-p)*(i,j)=-(
ACirc(p)*(i,j))
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A8: [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p);
now
per cases;
case
A9: i<=j;
(j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A2,A8,Lm3;
then
A10: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
[i,j] in Indices ACirc(-p) by A3,A8,MATRIX_0:26;
then ACirc(-p)*(i,j)=(-p).((j-i mod len (-p))+1) by A5,A9
.=(comp K).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A3,A10,FUNCT_1:13
.=(comp K).(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by A6,A8,A9
.=-(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by VECTSP_1:def 13;
hence thesis;
end;
case
A11: i>=j;
(j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A2,A8,Lm3;
then
A12: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom -p by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
[i,j] in Indices ACirc(-p) by A3,A8,MATRIX_0:26;
then ACirc(-p)*(i,j) =(-(-p)).((j-i mod len (-p))+1) by A5,A11
.=(comp K).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A3,A12,FUNCT_1:13
.=(comp K).(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by A6,A8,A11
.=-(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by VECTSP_1:def 13;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
len ACirc(-p)= len p & width ACirc(-p) = len p by A3,MATRIX_0:24;
hence thesis by A1,A7,MATRIX_3:def 2;
end;
theorem Th60:
p is first-line-of-anti-circular & q is
first-line-of-anti-circular & len p = len q implies p+q is
first-line-of-anti-circular
proof
set n = len p;
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A2: q is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A3: len p=len q;
consider M2 being Matrix of n,K such that
A4: M2 is_anti-circular_about q by A2,A3;
A5: width M2=n by MATRIX_0:24;
A6: dom p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
len q=width M2 by A4;
then dom q=Seg n by A5,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A7: dom (p+q)=dom p by A6,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A8: len (p+q)=n by A6,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
consider M1 being Matrix of n,K such that
A9: M1 is_anti-circular_about p by A1;
A10: Indices M1=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
set M3=M1+M2;
A11: q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A12: len (-q)=len q by CARD_1:def 7;
A13: Indices M2=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A14: Indices (M1+M2) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A15: dom (p+q)=Seg len (p+q) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A16: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2)&i<=j holds (M1+M2)*(i,j)=(p+q
).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A17: [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2) and
A18: i<=j;
A19: (j-i mod len (p+q))+1 in dom (p+q) by A14,A6,A15,A7,A17,Lm3;
(M1+M2)*(i,j) =M1*(i,j) + M2*(i,j) by A10,A14,A17,MATRIX_3:def 3
.=(the addF of K).(M1*(i,j),q.((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A4,A13,A14,A17,A18
.=(the addF of K).(p.((j-i mod len (p+q))+1),q.((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
) by A3,A9,A10,A14,A8,A17,A18
.=(p+q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A19,FUNCOP_1:22;
hence thesis;
end;
A20: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A21: len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A22: dom -p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A23: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2)&i>=j holds (M1+M2)*(i,j)=(-(
p+q)).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A24: [i,j] in Indices (M1+M2) and
A25: i>=j;
dom (-p)=Seg len p & dom (-q)=Seg len q by A21,A12,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then dom (-p+-q)=dom -p by A3,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A26: (j-i mod len (p+q))+1 in dom (-p+-q) by A14,A6,A15,A22,A7,A24,Lm3;
(M1+M2)*(i,j) =M1*(i,j) + M2*(i,j) by A10,A14,A24,MATRIX_3:def 3
.=(the addF of K).(M1*(i,j),(-q).((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A4,A13,A14,A24
,A25
.=(the addF of K).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1),(-q).((j-i mod len q)+1))
by A9,A10,A14,A24,A25
.=(-p+-q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A3,A8,A26,FUNCOP_1:22
.=(-(p+q)).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A3,A20,A11,FVSUM_1:31;
hence thesis;
end;
width (M1+M2)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then len (p+q)=width (M1+M2) by A6,A7,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then len (M1+M2)=n & M3 is_anti-circular_about (p+q) by A16,A23,
MATRIX_0:24;
then consider M3 being Matrix of len (p+q),K such that
len (p+q)=len M3 and
A27: M3 is_anti-circular_about p+q by A8;
take M3;
thus thesis by A27;
end;
theorem Th61:
p is first-line-of-anti-circular & q is
first-line-of-anti-circular & len p = len q implies ACirc(p+q) = ACirc(p)+ACirc
(q)
proof
set n = len p;
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A2: q is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A3: len p = len q;
A4: dom p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
dom q=Seg n by A3,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A5: dom (p+q)=dom p by A4,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A6: len (p+q)=n by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then
A7: Indices ACirc(p) =Indices ACirc(p+q) by MATRIX_0:26;
A8: Indices ACirc(p) =Indices ACirc(q) by A3,MATRIX_0:26;
A9: dom (p+q)=Seg len (p+q) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A10: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A11: len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
A12: Indices ACirc(p)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
p+q is first-line-of-anti-circular by A1,A2,A3,Th60;
then
A13: ACirc(p+q) is_anti-circular_about (p+q) by Def12;
A14: ACirc(q) is_anti-circular_about q by A2,Def12;
A15: q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -q is Element of (len q)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then
A16: len (-q)=len q by CARD_1:def 7;
A17: ACirc(p) is_anti-circular_about p by A1,Def12;
A18: Indices ACirc(q)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by A3,MATRIX_0:24;
A19: for i,j be Nat holds [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p) implies ACirc(p+q)*(i,j)
=ACirc(p)*(i,j)+ACirc(q)*(i,j)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A20: [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p);
then
A21: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A12,Lm3;
now
per cases;
case
A22: i<=j;
then ACirc(p+q)*(i,j) =(p+q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A13,A7,A20
.=(the addF of K).(p.((j-i mod len (p+q))+1),q.((j-i mod len (p+q)
)+1)) by A9,A6,A21,FUNCOP_1:22
.=(the addF of K).(ACirc(p)*(i,j),q.((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A3,A6,A17
,A20,A22
.=ACirc(p)*(i,j) + ACirc(q)*(i,j) by A14,A8,A20,A22;
hence thesis;
end;
case
A23: i>=j;
A24: dom (-p)=Seg len p by A11,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
dom (-q)=Seg len q by A16,FINSEQ_1:def 3;
then dom p=Seg n & dom (-p+-q)=dom -p by A3,A24,FINSEQ_1:def 3
,POLYNOM1:1;
then
A25: (j-i mod len (p+q))+1 in dom (-p+-q) by A9,A5,A12,A20,A24,Lm3;
ACirc(p+q)*(i,j) =(-(p+q)).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A13,A7,A20,A23
.=(-p+-q).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1) by A3,A10,A15,FVSUM_1:31
.=(the addF of K).((-p).((j-i mod len (p+q))+1),(-q).((j-i mod len
(p+q))+1)) by A25,FUNCOP_1:22
.=(the addF of K).(ACirc(p)*(i,j),(-q).((j-i mod len q)+1)) by A3,A6
,A17,A20,A23
.=ACirc(p)*(i,j) + ACirc(q)*(i,j) by A14,A12,A18,A20,A23;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
A26: len ACirc(p)= len p & width ACirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len ACirc(p+q)= len p & width ACirc(p+q) = len p by A6,MATRIX_0:24;
hence thesis by A26,A19,MATRIX_3:def 3;
end;
theorem Th62:
p is first-line-of-anti-circular implies a*p is first-line-of-anti-circular
proof
set n=len p;
A1: dom p=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
assume p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
then consider M1 being Matrix of n,K such that
A2: M1 is_anti-circular_about p;
A3: Indices (a*M1)=[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A4: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
A5: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1)&i>=j holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(-(a*
p)).((j-i mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
len (a*(-p))=len (-p) by MATRIXR1:16;
then
A6: dom (a*(-p))=Seg len (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.=dom (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A7: a*p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by A4,FINSEQ_2:92;
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A8: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) and
A9: i>=j;
A10: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,A8,Lm3;
A11: p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A12: dom (-p)=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A13: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A3,A8,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j)=a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A2,A9,A13
.=(a multfield).((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A10,A12,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*(-p))/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A10,A12,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*(-p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A10,A12,A6,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a*((-1_K)*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A11,FVSUM_1:59
.=((a*(-1_K))*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A11,FVSUM_1:54
.=((-a*1_K)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:8
.=((-a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=((-1_K*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=(((-1_K)*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:9
.=((-1_K)*(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A11,FVSUM_1:54
.=(-(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A7,FVSUM_1:59;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
A14: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A15: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices (a*M1)&i<=j holds (a*M1)*(i,j)=(a*p).(
(j-i mod len (a*p))+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A16: [i,j] in Indices (a*M1) and
A17: i<=j;
A18: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A3,A16,Lm3;
then
A19: (j-i mod len p)+1 in dom (a*p) by A14,MATRIXR1:16;
A20: [i,j] in Indices M1 by A3,A16,MATRIX_0:24;
then (a*M1)*(i,j)=a*(M1*(i,j)) by MATRIX_3:def 5
.=(a multfield).(M1*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A2,A17,A20
.=(a multfield).(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A1,A18,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A1,A18,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A19,PARTFUN1:def 6;
hence thesis by MATRIXR1:16;
end;
width (a*M1)=n by MATRIX_0:24;
then a*M1 is_anti-circular_about a*p by A4,A15,A5;
then consider M2 being Matrix of len (a*p),K such that
A21: M2 is_anti-circular_about a*p by A4;
take M2;
thus thesis by A21;
end;
theorem Th63:
p is first-line-of-anti-circular implies ACirc(a*p) =a*(ACirc p)
proof
set n=len p;
A1: len (a*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
assume
A2: p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
then
A3: ACirc(p) is_anti-circular_about p by Def12;
a*p is first-line-of-anti-circular by A2,Th62;
then
A4: ACirc(a*p) is_anti-circular_about a*p by Def12;
A5: Indices ACirc(p) =[:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A6: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p) holds ACirc(a*p)*(i,j)=a*(
ACirc(p)*(i,j))
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume
A7: [i,j] in Indices ACirc(p);
then
A8: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A5,Lm3;
A9: [i,j] in Indices ACirc(a*p) by A1,A7,MATRIX_0:26;
now
per cases;
case
A10: i<=j;
A11: dom (a*p)=Seg len (a*p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A12: dom p=Seg len p by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
ACirc(a*p)*(i,j)=(a*p).((j-i mod len (a*p))+1) by A4,A9,A10
.=(a*p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A1,A8,A11,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A8,A12,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a multfield).(p/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).(p.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A8,A12,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a multfield).(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by A3,A7,A10
.=a*(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49;
hence thesis;
end;
case
A13: i>=j;
len (a*(-p))=len (-p) by MATRIXR1:16;
then
A14: dom (a*(-p))=Seg len (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.=dom (-p) by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A15: a*p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by A1,FINSEQ_2:92;
A16: p is Element of n-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
then -p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by
FINSEQ_2:113;
then len (-p)=len p by CARD_1:def 7;
then
A17: dom (-p)=Seg n by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
a*(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) =(a multfield).(ACirc(p)*(i,j)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a multfield).((-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A3,A7,A13
.=(a multfield).((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by A8,A17,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=a*((-p)/.((j-i mod len p)+1)) by FVSUM_1:49
.=(a*(-p))/.((j-i mod len p)+1) by A8,A17,POLYNOM1:def 1
.=(a*(-p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A8,A17,A14,PARTFUN1:def 6
.=(a*((-1_K)*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A16,FVSUM_1:59
.=((a*(-1_K))*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A16,FVSUM_1:54
.=((-a*1_K)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:8
.=((-a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=((-1_K*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1)
.=(((-1_K)*a)*p).((j-i mod len p)+1) by VECTSP_1:9
.=((-1_K)*(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A16,FVSUM_1:54
.=(-(a*p)).((j-i mod len p)+1) by A15,FVSUM_1:59
.=ACirc(a*p)*(i,j) by A1,A4,A9,A13;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
A18: len ACirc(p)= len p & width ACirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len ACirc(a*p)= len p & width ACirc(a*p) = len p by A1,MATRIX_0:24;
hence thesis by A18,A6,MATRIX_3:def 5;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-anti-circular implies a*(ACirc p)+b*(ACirc p)=ACirc
((a+b)*p)
proof
A1: len (b*p)=len p by MATRIXR1:16;
A2: p is Element of (len p)-tuples_on the carrier of K by FINSEQ_2:92;
assume
A3: p is first-line-of-anti-circular;
then
A4: a*p is first-line-of-anti-circular & b*p is first-line-of-anti-circular
by Th62;
a*(ACirc p)+b*(ACirc p)=ACirc (a*p)+b*(ACirc p) by A3,Th63
.=ACirc (a*p)+ACirc (b*p) by A3,Th63
.=ACirc(a*p+b*p) by A4,A1,Th61,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis by A2,FVSUM_1:55;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-anti-circular & q is first-line-of-anti-circular &
len p = len q implies a*(ACirc p)+a*(ACirc q)=ACirc(a*(p+q))
proof
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-anti-circular & q is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A2: len p = len q;
A3: len ACirc(p)= len p & width ACirc(p) = len p by MATRIX_0:24;
len ACirc(q)= len p & width ACirc(q) = len p by A2,MATRIX_0:24;
then a*(ACirc p)+a*(ACirc q)=a*(ACirc p+ACirc q) by A3,MATRIX_5:20
.=a*(ACirc (p+q)) by A1,A2,Th61
.=ACirc(a*(p+q)) by A1,A2,Th60,Th63;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
p is first-line-of-anti-circular & q is first-line-of-anti-circular &
len p = len q implies a*(ACirc p)+b*(ACirc q)=ACirc(a*p+b*q)
proof
set n = len p;
assume that
A1: p is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A2: q is first-line-of-anti-circular and
A3: len p = len q;
A4: a*p is first-line-of-anti-circular & b*q is first-line-of-anti-circular
by A1,A2,Th62;
A5: len (b*q)=n by A3,MATRIXR1:16;
a*(ACirc p)+b*(ACirc q)=ACirc (a*p)+b*(ACirc q) by A1,Th63
.=ACirc (a*p)+ACirc (b*q) by A2,Th63
.=ACirc(a*p+b*q) by A4,A5,Th61,MATRIXR1:16;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let K,n;
cluster 0.(K,n) -> anti-circular;
coherence
proof
set p=n|-> 0.K;
A1: width (0.(K,n))=n by MATRIX_0:24;
A2: 0.(K,n,n)=n |-> (n |-> 0.K);
set M1=0.(K,n);
A3: len (n|-> 0.K)= n by CARD_1:def 7;
A4: Indices (0.(K,n)) = [:Seg n, Seg n:] by MATRIX_0:24;
A5: for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1&i>=j holds M1*(i,j)=(-p).((j-i
mod len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A6: [i,j] in Indices M1 and
i>=j;
A7: (j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,A6,Lm3;
(-p).((j-i mod len p)+1)=(n|-> -0.K).((j-i mod n)+1) by A3,FVSUM_1:25
.=-0.K by A7,FUNCOP_1:7
.=0.K by VECTSP_2:3;
hence thesis by A2,A6,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
for i,j be Nat st [i,j] in Indices M1&i<=j holds M1*(i,j)=p.((j-i mod
len p)+1)
proof
let i,j be Nat;
assume that
A8: [i,j] in Indices M1 and
i<=j;
(j-i mod n)+1 in Seg n by A4,A8,Lm3;
then (Seg n --> 0.K).((j-i mod n)+1)=0.K by FUNCOP_1:7;
hence thesis by A3,A2,A8,MATRIX_3:1;
end;
then M1 is_anti-circular_about p by A1,A3,A5;
then consider p being FinSequence of K such that
A9: len p =width M1 & M1 is_anti-circular_about p;
take p;
thus thesis by A9;
end;
end;