:: Grothendieck Universes
:: by Karol P\kak
::
:: Received May 31, 2020
:: Copyright (c) 2020-2021 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies FUNCT_1, RELAT_1, SETFAM_1, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, TARSKI, ZFMISC_1,
NAT_1, CARD_1, ORDINAL1, CLASSES1, CARD_3, CLASSES2, CLASSES3, WELLORD1,
FINSET_1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0, ARYTM_3, ARYTM_1, MEMBERED, ROUGHS_4;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, SETFAM_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1,
CARD_1, NUMBERS, CLASSES1, CARD_3, CLASSES2, XCMPLX_0, NAT_1, WELLORD1,
FINSET_1, MEMBERED, XXREAL_0, XXREAL_2;
constructors WELLORD2, CLASSES1, CARD_3, NUMBERS, WELLORD1, NAT_1, ORDINAL6,
XXREAL_2;
registrations XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, RELAT_1, SUBSET_1, CARD_1, CARD_3,
CLASSES1, CLASSES2, FINSET_1, XCMPLX_0, ORDINAL6, ZFMISC_1, XXREAL_0,
MEMBERED, XXREAL_2;
requirements SUBSET, BOOLE, NUMERALS, ARITHM;
definitions XBOOLE_0, ORDINAL1, CLASSES1, TARSKI, FUNCT_1;
expansions TARSKI, ORDINAL1, CLASSES1, XBOOLE_0;
theorems TARSKI, ZFMISC_1, SETFAM_1, CLASSES1, CLASSES2, XBOOLE_1, XBOOLE_0,
CARD_1, ORDINAL1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, CARD_3, CARD_5, WELLORD2, XXREAL_2,
WELLORD1, ORDINAL2, CARD_4, FINSET_1, MEMBERED, NAT_1;
schemes XFAMILY, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, CLASSES1, ORDINAL2, NAT_1;
begin :: Grothendieck Universes Axioms
:: The material is an extension of the formalization used in
:: Chad E. Brown, Karol Pak,
:: A Tale of Two Set Theories, Intelligent Computer Mathematics
:: In C. Kaliszyk and E. Brady and A. Kohlhase and C. Sacerdoti Coen editors,
:: Intelligent Computer Mathematics - 12th International Conference, CICM 2019,
:: Proceedings, Vol 11617 of LNCS, pages 44-60. Springer, 2019.
reserve X,Y,Z for set,
x,y,z for object,
A,B,C for Ordinal;
definition
let X;
attr X is power-closed means :Def1:
Y in X implies bool Y in X;
end;
definition
let X;
attr X is union-closed means :Def2:
Y in X implies union Y in X;
end;
definition
let X;
attr X is FamUnion-closed means :Def3:
for Y for f being Function st
dom f = Y & rng f c= X & Y in X
holds union rng f in X;
end;
registration
cluster Tarski -> power-closed subset-closed for set;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster epsilon-transitive Tarski -> union-closed FamUnion-closed
for set;
coherence
proof
let X such that
A1: X is epsilon-transitive Tarski;
thus X is union-closed by A1,CLASSES2:59;
let Y;
let f be Function such that
A2: dom f = Y & rng f c= X & Y in X;
reconsider X as Universe by A1,A2;
not Y,X are_equipotent & card Y in card X by A2,CLASSES2:1;
then card rng f in card X by A2,ORDINAL1:12,CARD_1:12;
then
A3: card rng f<>card X;
rng f,X are_equipotent or rng f in X by A2,CLASSES1:def 2;
hence thesis by A3,CARD_1:5,CLASSES2:59;
end;
end;
registration
cluster epsilon-transitive FamUnion-closed -> union-closed for set;
coherence
proof
let X be set such that
A1: X is epsilon-transitive FamUnion-closed;
let A be set such that
A2: A in X;
dom id A = A & rng id A = A c= X by A1,A2;
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
end;
registration
cluster epsilon-transitive power-closed -> subset-closed for set;
coherence
proof
let X be set such that
A1: X is epsilon-transitive power-closed;
let A,B be set such that
A2: A in X & B c= A;
B in bool A c= X by A1,A2;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
definition
mode Grothendieck is epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed set;
end;
begin :: Grothendieck Universe Operator
definition
let X be set;
mode Grothendieck of X -> Grothendieck means :Def4:
X in it;
existence
proof
set R = the_transitive-closure_of {X};
take T = Tarski-Class R;
A1: union T c= T by CLASSES1:48;
X in {X} & {X} c= R by CLASSES1:52,TARSKI:def 1;
then X in R & R in T by CLASSES1:2;
then X in union T by TARSKI:def 4;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
end;
registration
let G1,G2 be Grothendieck;
cluster G1/\G2 -> epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed;
coherence
proof
thus G1 /\G2 is epsilon-transitive by CLASSES1:50;
hereby
let X be set such that
A1: X in G1/\G2;
A2: G1 is power-closed & G2 is power-closed;
X in G1 & X in G2 by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then bool X in G1 & bool X in G2 by A2;
hence bool X in G1 /\G2 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
let X;
let f be Function such that
A3: dom f= X & rng f c= G1/\G2 & X in G1/\G2;
rng f c= G1 & X in G1 by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A4: union rng f in G1 by A3,Def3;
rng f c= G2 & X in G2 by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then union rng f in G2 by A3,Def3;
hence thesis by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
end;
theorem Th1:
for G1,G2 being Grothendieck of X holds G1/\G2 is Grothendieck of X
proof
let G1,G2 be Grothendieck of X;
X in G1 & X in G2 by Def4;
hence X in G1 /\ G2 by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
definition
let X be set;
func GrothendieckUniverse X -> Grothendieck of X means :GDef:
for G being Grothendieck of X holds it c= G;
existence
proof
set g=the Grothendieck of X;
defpred g[set] means $1 is Grothendieck of X;
consider Gclasses be set such that
A1: Y in Gclasses iff Y in bool g & g[Y] from XFAMILY:sch 1;
A2: g in bool g by ZFMISC_1:def 1;
then reconsider Gclasses as non empty set by A1;
set M = meet Gclasses;
A3: M is epsilon-transitive
proof
let Y such that
A4: Y in M;
for Z st Z in Gclasses holds Y c= Z
proof
let Z;
assume Z in Gclasses;
then Y in Z & Z is epsilon-transitive by SETFAM_1:def 1,A4,A1;
hence Y c= Z;
end;
hence Y c= M by SETFAM_1:5;
end;
A5: M is power-closed
proof
let Z such that
A6: Z in M;
for Y st Y in Gclasses holds bool Z in Y
proof
let Y;
assume Y in Gclasses;
then Z in Y & Y is power-closed by A1,A6,SETFAM_1:def 1;
hence bool Z in Y;
end;
hence bool Z in M by SETFAM_1:def 1;
end;
M is FamUnion-closed
proof
let Z;
let f be Function such that
A7: dom f= Z & rng f c= M & Z in M;
for Y st Y in Gclasses holds union rng f in Y
proof
let Y such that
A8: Y in Gclasses;
A9: Z in Y & Y is FamUnion-closed by A8,A1,A7,SETFAM_1:def 1;
rng f c= M & M c= Y by A8,A7,SETFAM_1:7;
then rng f c= Y;
hence union rng f in Y by A7,A9;
end;
hence union rng f in M by SETFAM_1:def 1;
end;
then reconsider M as Grothendieck by A3,A5;
M is Grothendieck of X
proof
now
let Y;
assume Y in Gclasses;
then Y is Grothendieck of X by A1;
hence X in Y by Def4;
end;
hence X in M by SETFAM_1:def 1;
end;
then reconsider M as Grothendieck of X;
take M;
let G1 be Grothendieck of X;
A10: M /\ G1 is Grothendieck of X by Th1;
M/\G1 c= M c= g by SETFAM_1:3,A2,A1,XBOOLE_1:17;
then A11: M/\G1 c= g & M/\G1 c= G1 by XBOOLE_1:17;
then M c= M/\G1 by A10,A1,SETFAM_1:3;
hence thesis by A11;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
scheme ClosedUnderReplacement
{X()-> set, U() -> Grothendieck of X(),F(set) -> set}:
{F(x) where x is Element of X(): x in X()} in U()
provided
A1: Y in X() implies F(Y) in U()
proof
A2: U() is epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed;
deffunc S(set)={F($1)};
consider s be Function such that
A3:dom s = X() & for X st X in X() holds s.X=S(X) from FUNCT_1:sch 5;
rng s c= U()
proof
let y;
assume y in rng s;
then consider x such that
A4: x in dom s & s.x=y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
bool (F(x)) in U() by A2,A1,A4,A3;
then
A5: bool bool (F(x)) c= U() by A2;
S(x) c= bool (F(x)) by ZFMISC_1:68;
then S(x) in bool bool (F(x));
then y in bool bool (F(x)) by A4,A3;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
then
A6: union rng s in U() by A3,A2,Def4;
set FX={F(x) where x is Element of X(): x in X()};
A7: Union s c= FX
proof
let y;
assume y in Union s;
then consider x such that
A8: x in dom s & y in s.x by CARD_5:2;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
s.x = S(x) by A8,A3;
then y = F(x) by A8,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A8,A3;
end;
FX c= Union s
proof
let fx be object;
assume fx in FX;
then consider x be Element of X() such that
A9: fx=F(x) & x in X();
fx in S(x) = s.x by A9,A3,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A9,A3,CARD_5:2;
end;
then FX=Union s by A7;
hence thesis by CARD_3:def 4,A6;
end;
reserve U for Grothendieck;
theorem Th2:
for f be Function st dom f in U & rng f c= U holds rng f in U
proof
let f be Function such that
A1: dom f in U & rng f c= U;
set A=dom f;
A2: U is epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed;
deffunc S(set)={f.$1};
consider s be Function such that
A3:dom s = A & for X st X in A holds s.X=S(X) from FUNCT_1:sch 5;
rng s c= U
proof
let y; assume y in rng s;
then consider x such that
A4: x in dom s & s.x=y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
f.x in rng f by A4,A3,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then bool (f.x) in U by A1,A2;
then
A5: bool bool (f.x) c= U by A2;
S(x) c= bool (f.x) by ZFMISC_1:68;
then S(x) in bool bool (f.x);
then y in bool bool (f.x) by A4,A3;
hence thesis by A5;
end;
then
A6: union rng s in U by A3,A1,A2;
A7: Union s c= rng f
proof
let y;
assume y in Union s;
then consider x such that
A8: x in dom s & y in s.x by CARD_5:2;
reconsider x as set by TARSKI:1;
s.x = S(x) by A8,A3;
then y = f.x by A8,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A8, A3,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
rng f c= Union s
proof
let fx be object;
assume fx in rng f;
then consider x such that
A9: x in dom f & f.x=fx by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x as set by A9;
fx in S(x) = s.x by A9,A3,TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by A9,A3,CARD_5:2;
end;
then rng f=Union s by A7;
hence thesis by CARD_3:def 4,A6;
end;
begin :: Set of All Sets Up To Given Rank
definition
let x be object;
func Rrank x -> epsilon-transitive set equals
Rank the_rank_of x;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th3:
X in Rank A iff ex B st B in A & X in bool Rank B
proof
thus X in Rank A implies ex B st B in A & X in bool Rank B
proof
assume
A1: X in Rank A;
per cases;
suppose
A is limit_ordinal;
then consider B such that
A3: B in A & X in Rank B by A1,CLASSES1:29,CLASSES1:31;
take B;
B c= B\/{B} by XBOOLE_1:7;
then B c= succ B by ORDINAL1:def 1;
then Rank B c= Rank succ B by CLASSES1:37;
then X in Rank succ B by A3;
hence thesis by A3,CLASSES1:30;
end;
suppose not A is limit_ordinal;
then consider B be Ordinal such that
A4: A= succ B by ORDINAL1:29;
take B;
thus thesis by A1,A4,ORDINAL1:6,CLASSES1:30;
end;
end;
thus thesis by CLASSES1:36,41;
end;
theorem Th4:
Y in Rrank X iff ex Z st Z in X & Y in bool Rrank Z
proof
thus Y in Rrank X implies
ex Z st Z in X & Y in bool Rrank Z
proof
assume Y in Rrank X;
then consider B be Ordinal such that
A1: B in the_rank_of X & Y in bool Rank B by Th3;
consider a be set such that
A2: a in X & B c= the_rank_of a by A1,CLASSES1:70;
Rank B c= Rrank a by A2,CLASSES1:37;
then Y c= Rrank a by A1;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
given Z be set such that
A3: Z in X & Y in bool Rrank Z;
succ the_rank_of Z c= the_rank_of X by A3,CLASSES1:68,ORDINAL1:21;
then
A4: Rank succ the_rank_of Z c= Rrank X by CLASSES1:37;
Y in Rank succ the_rank_of Z by A3,CLASSES1:30;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (1)
x in X & y in Rrank x implies y in Rrank X
proof
assume
A1: x in X & y in Rrank x;
reconsider x,y as set by TARSKI:1;
the_rank_of x in the_rank_of X by A1,CLASSES1:68;
then Rrank x c= Rrank X by ORDINAL1:def 2,CLASSES1:36;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (2)
Y in Rrank X implies ex x st x in X & Y c= Rrank x
proof
assume Y in Rrank X;
then ex Z st Z in X & Y in bool Rrank Z by Th4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (3)
X c= Rrank X by CLASSES1:def 9;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (4)
X c= Rrank Y implies Rrank X c= Rrank Y
proof
assume X c= Rrank Y;
then the_rank_of X c= the_rank_of Y by CLASSES1:65;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:37;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (5)
X in Rrank Y implies Rrank X in Rrank Y
proof
assume X in Rrank Y;
then the_rank_of X in the_rank_of Y by CLASSES1:66;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:36;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (6)
X in Rrank Y or Rrank Y c= Rrank X
proof
assume not X in Rrank Y;
then not the_rank_of X in the_rank_of Y by CLASSES1:66;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:37,ORDINAL1:16;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 2 (7)
Rrank X in Rrank Y or Rrank Y c= Rrank X
proof
assume not Rrank X in Rrank Y;
then not the_rank_of X in the_rank_of Y by CLASSES1:36;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:37,ORDINAL1:16;
end;
theorem
X in U & X,A are_equipotent implies A in U
proof
defpred P[Ordinal] means for X st X,$1 are_equipotent & X in U holds $1 in U;
A1:for A be Ordinal st
for C be Ordinal st C in A holds P[C] holds P[A]
proof
let A be Ordinal such that
A2: for C be Ordinal st C in A holds P[C];
let S be set such that
A3: S,A are_equipotent & S in U;
consider f be Function such that
A4: f is one-to-one & dom f = S & rng f = A by A3,WELLORD2:def 4;
rng f c= U
proof
let y such that
A5: y in rng f;
reconsider B=y as Ordinal by A5,A4;
A6: B|` f is one-to-one by A4,FUNCT_1:58;
A7: rng (B|`f) = B by A4,RELAT_1:89,A5,ORDINAL1:def 2;
dom(B|`f) in U by A3,A4,CLASSES1:def 1,RELAT_1:186;
hence thesis by A7,A6,WELLORD2:def 4,A5,A4,A2;
end;
hence A in U by A4,A3,Th2;
end;
for O be Ordinal holds P[O] from ORDINAL1:sch 2(A1);
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th13:
X in Y in U implies X in U
proof
assume X in Y in U;
then union Y in U & X c= union Y by Def2,ZFMISC_1:74;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:def 1;
end;
theorem Th14: :: Theorem 3
X in U implies Rrank X in U
proof
defpred P[Ordinal] means for A be set st (the_rank_of A) in $1
& A in U holds Rrank A in U;
A1: for A st for C st C in A holds P[C] holds P[A]
proof
let A such that
A2: for C st C in A holds P[C];
let S be set such that
A3: the_rank_of S in A & S in U;
deffunc V(object) = bool Rrank $1;
consider v be Function such that
A4: dom v = S & for x be object st x in S holds v.x = V(x)
from FUNCT_1:sch 3;
A5: rng v c= U
proof
let y such that
A6: y in rng v;
consider x such that
A7: x in dom v & v.x = y by A6,FUNCT_1:def 3;
succ the_rank_of x c= the_rank_of S by ORDINAL1:21,A7,A4,CLASSES1:68;
then
A8: for S be set st (the_rank_of S) in succ the_rank_of x & S in U
holds Rrank S in U by A2,A3;
A9: x in U by A3,Th13,A7,A4;
Rrank x in U by A8,A9,ORDINAL1:6;
then bool Rrank x in U by Def1;
hence thesis by A7,A4;
end;
A10: union rng v c= Rrank S
proof
let a be object;
assume a in union rng v;
then consider b be set such that
A11: a in b & b in rng v by TARSKI:def 4;
consider x be object such that
A12: x in dom v & v.x= b by A11,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider a,b,x as set by TARSKI:1;
b = bool Rrank x by A12,A4;
hence thesis by A11,A12,A4,Th4;
end;
Rrank S c= union rng v
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Rrank S;
then consider a be set such that
A13: a in S & x in bool Rrank a by Th4;
v.a = bool Rrank a & v.a in rng v by A13,A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A13,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
then
union rng v = Rrank S by A10;
hence Rrank S in U by A5,A4,A3,Def3;
end;
A14: for O be Ordinal holds P[O] from ORDINAL1:sch 2(A1);
(the_rank_of X) in succ (the_rank_of X) by ORDINAL1:6;
hence thesis by A14;
end;
theorem
A in U implies Rank A in U
proof
defpred P[Ordinal] means $1 in U implies Rank $1 in U;
A1:for A st for C st C in A holds P[C] holds P[A]
proof
let A such that
A2: for C st C in A holds P[C];
assume
A3: A in U;
deffunc BR(Ordinal)=bool Rank $1;
consider br be Sequence such that
A4: dom br = A & for O be Ordinal st O in A holds br.O =BR(O)
from ORDINAL2:sch 2;
A5: rng br c= U
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng br;
then consider B be object such that
A6: B in dom br & br.B = y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider B as Ordinal by A6;
B in U by A6,A4,A3,Th13;
then bool Rank B in U & br.B = bool Rank B by A2,A4,A6,Def1;
hence thesis by A6;
end;
A7: union rng br c= Rank A
proof
let z;
assume z in union rng br;
then consider y be set such that
A8: z in y & y in rng br by TARSKI:def 4;
consider B be object such that
A9: B in dom br & br.B = y by A8,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider B as Ordinal by A9;
br.B = bool Rank B by A4,A9;
hence thesis by A8,A9,A4,Th3;
end;
Rank A c= union rng br
proof
let x such that
A10: x in Rank A;
reconsider X=x as set by TARSKI:1;
consider B such that
A11: B in A & X in bool Rank B by A10,Th3;
A12: br.B in rng br by A11,A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
br.B = bool Rank B by A11,A4;
hence thesis by A11,A12,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
then Rank A = union rng br by A7;
hence thesis by A5,Def3,A4,A3;
end;
for O be Ordinal holds P[O] from ORDINAL1:sch 2(A1);
hence thesis;
end;
begin :: Tarski vs. Grothendieck Universe
theorem Th16: :: Main Lemma 1
for X st X c= U & not X in U
ex f be Function st f is one-to-one & dom f = On U & rng f = X
proof
let X such that
A1:X c= U & not X in U;
for x be set st x in On U holds x is Ordinal & x c= On U
proof
let x be set;
assume
A2: x in On U;
then x in U & x is Ordinal by ORDINAL1:def 9;
then x c= U by ORDINAL1:def 2;
hence thesis by A2,ORDINAL1:def 9;
end;
then On U is epsilon-transitive epsilon-connected by ORDINAL1:19;
then reconsider Lambda=On U as Ordinal;
ex THE be Function st for x be set st {} <> x c= X holds THE.x in x
proof
consider V be Relation such that
A3: V well_orders X by WELLORD2:17;
defpred The[object,object] means for A be set st A = $1 holds
$2 in A & for b be object st b in A holds [$2,b] in V;
A4: for x st x in (bool X)\{{}} ex u be object st The[x,u]
proof
let x such that
A5: x in (bool X)\{{}};
reconsider y=x as set by TARSKI:1;
consider a be object such that
A6: a in y and
A7: for b be object st b in y holds [a,b] in V
by A3,WELLORD1:5,A5,ZFMISC_1:56;
take a;
thus thesis by A6,A7;
end;
consider THE be Function such that
dom THE = (bool X)\{{}} and
A8: for e be object st e in (bool X)\{{}} holds The[e,THE.e]
from CLASSES1:sch 1(A4);
take THE;
let x be set;
assume {}<>x c= X;
then x in (bool X)\{{}} by ZFMISC_1:56;
hence thesis by A8;
end;
then consider THE be Function such that
A9: for x be set st {} <> x c= X holds THE.x in x;
deffunc ranks(set) = {the_rank_of x where x is Element of $1:x in $1};
A10: for A be set, x be object holds
x in ranks(A) iff ex a be set st a in A & x = the_rank_of a
proof
let A be set, x be object;
thus x in ranks(A) implies ex a be set st a in A & x = the_rank_of a
proof
assume x in ranks(A);
then consider a be Element of A such that
A11: x = the_rank_of a & a in A;
take a;
thus thesis by A11;
end;
assume ex a be set st a in A & x = the_rank_of a;
hence thesis;
end;
defpred Q[set,object] means
$2 in X \ $1 &
for B be Ordinal st B in ranks(X\$1) holds the_rank_of $2 c= B;
deffunc F(Sequence) = THE. {x where x is Element of X: Q[rng $1,x]};
consider f be Sequence such that
A12: dom f = Lambda and
A13: for A be Ordinal,L be Sequence st
A in Lambda & L = f|A holds f.A = F(L) from ORDINAL1:sch 4;
A14: for A be Ordinal st A in Lambda holds Q[rng (f|A), f.A]
proof
let A be Ordinal such that
A15: A in Lambda;
A16: A in U by A15,ORDINAL1:def 9;
A17: dom (f|A) = A by A12,RELAT_1:62,A15,ORDINAL1:def 2;
A18: f.A = F(f|A) by A15,A13;
set II= {x where x is Element of X: Q[rng (f|A),x]};
II c= X
proof
let i be object;
assume i in II;
then ex x be Element of X st i=x & Q[rng (f|A),x];
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider II as Subset of X;
defpred P[Ordinal] means ex a be set st a in X\rng (f|A) &
$1 = the_rank_of a;
A19: ex O be Ordinal st P[O]
proof
assume
A20: for O be Ordinal holds not P[O];
A21: X\rng (f|A)={}
proof
assume X\rng (f|A)<>{};
then consider a be object such that
A22: a in X\rng (f|A) by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
P[the_rank_of a] by A22;
hence contradiction by A20;
end;
A23: dom ( X |` (f|A)) in U by A17,A16,CLASSES1:def 1,FUNCT_1:56;
rng ( X |` (f|A)) = X by A21,XBOOLE_1:37,RELAT_1:89;
hence contradiction by A1,Th2,A23;
end;
consider Min be Ordinal such that
A24: P[Min] & for O be Ordinal st P[O] holds Min c= O
from ORDINAL1:sch 1(A19);
consider t be set such that
A25: t in X\rng (f|A) & Min = the_rank_of t by A24;
for B be Ordinal st B in ranks(X\rng (f|A)) holds the_rank_of t c= B
proof
let B be Ordinal such that
A26: B in ranks(X\rng (f|A));
ex a be set st a in X\rng (f|A) & B=the_rank_of a by A10,A26;
hence thesis by A24,A25;
end;
then t in II by A25;
then THE.II in II by A9;
then ex x be Element of X st x = THE.II & Q[rng (f|A),x];
hence Q[rng (f|A),f.A] by A18;
end;
A27: f is one-to-one
proof
let x1,x2 be object such that
A28: x1 in dom f & x2 in dom f & f.x1 = f.x2;
assume
A29: x1<>x2;
reconsider x1,x2 as Ordinal by A28;
A30: f.x1 in X\rng (f|x1) & f.x2 in X\rng (f|x2) by A14,A28,A12;
per cases by A28,ORDINAL1:def 3,A29;
suppose x1 in x2;
then x1 in dom (f|x2) & f.x1 = (f|x2).x1 by A28,RELAT_1:57,FUNCT_1:49;
then f.x1 in rng (f|x2) by FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence contradiction by A30,XBOOLE_0:def 5,A28;
end;
suppose x2 in x1;
then x2 in dom (f|x1) & f.x2 = (f|x1).x2 by A28,RELAT_1:57,FUNCT_1:49;
then f.x2 in rng (f|x1) by FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence contradiction by A30,XBOOLE_0:def 5,A28;
end;
end;
A31: rng f c= X
proof
let y such that
A32: y in rng f;
consider A be object such that
A33: A in dom f & f.A =y by A32,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider A as Ordinal by A33;
Q[rng (f|A), f.A] by A12,A14,A33;
hence thesis by A33;
end;
A34: X c= rng f
proof
let x such that
A35: x in X;
assume
A36: not x in rng f;
Rrank x in U by A1,A35,Th14;
then
A37: bool Rrank x in U by Def1;
rng f c= bool Rrank x
proof
let y be object such that
A38: y in rng f;
consider A be object such that
A39: A in dom f & f.A = y by A38,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider A as Ordinal by A39;
rng (f|A) c= rng f by RELAT_1:70;
then not x in rng (f|A) by A36;
then x in X\rng(f|A) by A35,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then the_rank_of x in ranks(X\rng (f|A));
then the_rank_of (f.A) in succ the_rank_of x
by A39,A12,A14,ORDINAL1:22;
then
A40: Rank succ the_rank_of (f.A) c= Rank succ the_rank_of x
by CLASSES1:37,ORDINAL1:21;
f.A in Rank succ the_rank_of (f.A) by CLASSES1:def 8;
then f.A in Rank succ the_rank_of x by A40;
hence thesis by A39, CLASSES1:30;
end;
then
A41: rng f in U by A37,CLASSES1:def 1;
A42: rng (f") = dom f & dom (f") = rng f by A27,FUNCT_1:33;
dom f in U by A42,A41,A12,ORDINAL2:7,Th2;
then dom f in Lambda by ORDINAL1:def 9;
hence thesis by A12;
end;
take f;
thus thesis by A34,A31,A27,A12;
end;
theorem Th17: :: Theorem 5
for U be Grothendieck holds U is Tarski
proof
let U be Grothendieck;
thus U is subset-closed;
thus for X be set holds X in U implies bool X in U by Def1;
let X be set such that
A1: X c= U;
not X in U implies X,U are_equipotent
proof
assume not X in U;
then consider f be Function such that
A2: f is one-to-one & dom f = On U & rng f = X by A1,Th16;
not U in U;
then consider g be Function such that
A3: g is one-to-one & dom g = On U & rng g = U by Th16;
set gf = g*(f");
dom (f") = X & rng (f") = On U by A2,FUNCT_1:33;
then dom gf = X & rng gf = U by A3,RELAT_1:27,28;
hence thesis by A2,A3,WELLORD2:def 4;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
cluster epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed -> universal for set;
coherence
proof
let X be set;
assume
A1: X is epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed;
then X is Tarski by Th17;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
cluster universal -> epsilon-transitive power-closed FamUnion-closed for set;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th18:
for G be Grothendieck of X holds Tarski-Class X c= G
proof
let G be Grothendieck of X;
G is_Tarski-Class_of X by Def4;
hence thesis by CLASSES1:def 4;
end;
theorem Th19:
for X be infinite set holds not X in Tarski-Class {X}
proof
let A be infinite set;
deffunc Bool(set,set) = $2\/bool $2;
consider f be Function such that
A1: dom f = NAT & f.0 = {{A},{}} and
A2: for n be Nat holds f.(n+1) = Bool(n,f.n) from NAT_1:sch 11;
set U = Union f;
f.(0+1) = f.0 \/ bool (f.0) & {} c= {{A},{}} by A2;
then
A3: {} in f.1 by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then
A4: {} in U by A1,CARD_5:2;
defpred Min[object,object] means $1 in f.$2 & $2 in dom f &
for i,j be Nat st i < j =$2 holds not $1 in f.i;
A5: for x be object st x in U ex y be object st Min[x,y]
proof
let x such that
A6: x in U;
consider k be object such that
A7: k in dom f & x in f.k by A6,CARD_5:2;
reconsider k as Nat by A7,A1;
defpred M[Nat] means x in f.$1;
M[k] by A7;
then
A8: ex k be Nat st M[k];
consider k be Nat such that
A9: M[k] and
A10: for n being Nat st M[n] holds k <= n from NAT_1:sch 5(A8);
take k;
thus thesis by A10,A9,A1,ORDINAL1:def 12;
end;
consider Min be Function such that
A11:dom Min = U & for x be object st x in U holds Min[x,Min.x]
from CLASSES1:sch 1(A5);
A12:U is subset-closed
proof
let X,Y such that
A13: X in U & Y c= X;
set x=Min.X;
A14: Min[X,x] by A11,A13;
then reconsider x as Nat by A1;
per cases by NAT_1:3;
suppose X=Y;
hence thesis by A13;
end;
suppose x=0 & X<>Y;
then X ={A} or X={} by A1,TARSKI:def 2,A14;
hence thesis by A4,A13,ZFMISC_1:33;
end;
suppose x >0;
then reconsider x1=x-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
x1 < x1+1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A15: not X in f.x1 by A11,A13;
A16: f.(x1+1) = f.x1 \/ bool (f.x1) by A2;
then X in bool (f.x1) by A14,A15,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then X c= f.x1;
then Y c= f.x1 by A13;
then Y in f.x by A16,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A14,CARD_5:2;
end;
end;
A17: for X st X in U holds bool X in U
proof
let X such that
A18: X in U;
set x=Min.X;
A19: Min[X,x] by A11,A18;
reconsider x as Nat by A19,A1;
A20: f.(x+1) = f.x \/ bool (f.x) by A2;
per cases by NAT_1:3;
suppose
A21: x=0;
then X ={A} or X= {} by A1,TARSKI:def 2,A19;
then bool X c= {{A},{}} by ZFMISC_1:7,ZFMISC_1:24,ZFMISC_1:1;
then bool X in f.1 by A20,A21,A1,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,CARD_5:2;
end;
suppose x >0;
then reconsider x1=x-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
x1 < x1+1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A22: not X in f.x1 by A11,A18;
A23: f.(x1+1) = f.x1 \/ bool (f.x1) by A2;
A24: f.(x+1) = f.x \/ bool (f.x) by A2;
X in bool (f.x1) by A23,A19,A22,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then bool X c= bool (f.x1) by ZFMISC_1:67;
then bool X c= f.x by A23,XBOOLE_1:10;
then bool X in f.(x+1) by A24,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,CARD_5:2;
end;
end;
defpred D[Nat] means f.$1 is finite;
A25: D[0] by A1;
A26: for n be Nat st D[n] holds D[n+1]
proof
let n be Nat such that
A27: D[n];
f.(n+1) = f.n \/ bool (f.n) by A2;
hence thesis by A27;
end;
A28: for n be Nat holds D[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A25,A26);
A29: for x be set st x in dom f holds f.x is countable
proof
let x be set such that
A30:x in dom f;
reconsider x as Nat by A30,A1;
D[x] by A28;
hence thesis;
end;
then
A31:U is countable by CARD_4:11,A1;
for X holds X c= U implies X,U are_equipotent or X in U
proof
let X such that
A32: X c= U;
per cases;
suppose card X = omega or X={};
then card U=card X or X={}
by A32,CARD_1:11,CARD_3:def 14,A29,CARD_4:11,A1;
hence thesis by A3,A1,CARD_5:2,CARD_1:5;
end;
suppose
A33: card X <> omega & X<>{};
then card X c< omega by A32,CARD_3:def 14,A31;
then card X in omega by ORDINAL1:11;
then
A34: X is finite;
defpred P[object,object] means $1 in f.$2 & $2 in dom f;
A35: for x be object st x in X ex u be object st P[x,u]
proof
let x;assume x in X;
then ex n be object st n in dom f & x in f.n by A32,CARD_5:2;
hence thesis;
end;
consider fX be Function such that
A36: dom fX = X and
A37: for x be object st x in X holds P[x,fX.x] from CLASSES1:sch 1(A35);
A38: now let y be object;
assume y in rng fX;
then ex x be object st x in dom fX & fX.x=y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence y is natural by A1,A37,A36;
end;
reconsider RNG=rng fX as finite natural-membered non empty set
by A33,RELAT_1:42,A38,MEMBERED:def 6,A36,A34,FINSET_1:8;
set m= max RNG;
m in omega by ORDINAL1:def 12;then
reconsider m as Nat;
A39: f.(m+1) = f.m \/ bool (f.m) & m+1 in omega by A2;
X c= f.m
proof
let x be object such that
A40: x in X;
P[x,fX.x] by A40,A37;
then reconsider k=fX.x as Nat by A1;
k in rng fX by A40,A36,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then
A41: k <= m by XXREAL_2:def 8;
defpred Q[Nat] means x in f.$1;
A42: Q[k] by A40,A37;
A43: for i be Nat st k <= i & Q[i] holds Q[i+1]
proof
let i be Nat such that
A44: k <= i & Q[i];
f.(i+1) = f.i \/ bool (f.i) by A2;
hence thesis by A44,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
for i be Nat st k <= i holds Q[i] from NAT_1:sch 8(A42,A43);
hence thesis by A41;
end;
then X in f.(m+1) by A39,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,CARD_5:2;
end;
end;
then
A45: U is Tarski by A12,A17;
{A} in f.0 & 0 in omega by A1,TARSKI:def 2;
then U is_Tarski-Class_of {A} by A45,CARD_5:2,A1;
then
A46: Tarski-Class {A} c= U by CLASSES1:def 4;
not A in U
proof
assume
A48: A in U;
then
A49: Min[A,Min.A] by A11;
then reconsider x=Min.A as Nat by A1;
per cases by NAT_1:3;
suppose x=0;
hence thesis by A1,A49;
end;
suppose x >0;
then reconsider x1=x-1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
x1 < x1+1 by NAT_1:13;
then
A50: not A in f.x1 by A48,A11;
A51: f.(x1+1) = f.x1 \/ bool (f.x1) by A2;
A in bool (f.x1) by A51,A49,A50,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then A c= f.x1 & f.x1 is finite by A28;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
hence thesis by A46;
end;
theorem
for X be infinite set holds
Tarski-Class {X} c< GrothendieckUniverse {X}
proof
let X be infinite set;
thus Tarski-Class {X} c= GrothendieckUniverse {X} by Th18;
GrothendieckUniverse {X} is union-closed;
then union {X} in GrothendieckUniverse {X} by Def4;
hence thesis by Th19;
end;
theorem
GrothendieckUniverse X is Universe &
for U be Universe st X in U holds GrothendieckUniverse X c= U
proof
set G=GrothendieckUniverse X;
thus G is Universe by Def4;
let U be Universe; assume X in U;
then U is Grothendieck of X by Def4;
hence thesis by GDef;
end;
theorem
for X be epsilon-transitive set holds
Tarski-Class X = GrothendieckUniverse X
proof
let X be epsilon-transitive set;
Tarski-Class X is Grothendieck of X by Def4,CLASSES1:2;
hence thesis by GDef,Th18;
end;