:: Cayley's Theorem
:: by Artur Korni{\l}owicz
::
:: Received December 29, 2010
:: Copyright (c) 2010-2021 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies RELAT_1, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, SUBSET_1, MSSUBFAM, FUNCT_2, CAYLEY,
ALGSTR_0, GROUP_1, BINOP_1, STRUCT_0, WELLORD1, GROUP_6, NAT_1, FINSEQ_1,
TARSKI, MONOID_0, FINSET_1, FUNCT_5, ZFMISC_1, MATRIX_1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, PARTFUN1,
FINSET_1, FUNCT_2, BINOP_1, ORDINAL1, FINSEQ_1, FUNCT_5, PARTIT_2,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, GROUP_1, GROUP_6, MONOID_0, TOPGRP_1, MATRIX_1;
constructors RELSET_1, GROUP_6, TOPGRP_1, BINOP_1, MATRIX_1, MONOID_0,
WELLORD2, PARTIT_2, FUNCT_5;
registrations XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, PARTFUN1, GROUP_2, STRUCT_0, TOPGRP_1,
FUNCT_2, MATRIX_1, RELSET_1, MONOID_0, FINSET_1, FRAENKEL, ZFMISC_1;
requirements SUBSET, BOOLE;
definitions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, STRUCT_0, MONOID_0, GROUP_1,
GROUP_6;
equalities FUNCT_5, ALGSTR_0, ORDINAL1;
expansions FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, MONOID_0;
theorems FUNCT_2, TOPGRP_1, FUNCT_1, GROUP_1, RELAT_1, BINOP_1, GROUP_6,
MATRIX_1, WELLORD2, CARD_1, TARSKI, FUNCOP_1;
schemes FUNCT_2, BINOP_1;
begin
reserve X,Y for set;
reserve G for Group;
reserve n for Nat;
registration
let X;
cluster {}(X,{}) -> onto;
coherence;
end;
registration
cluster permutational -> functional for set;
coherence
proof
let X;
assume X is permutational;
then
A1: ex n st for x being set st x in X holds x is Permutation of Seg n
by MATRIX_1:def 10;
let x be object;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
end;
definition
let X;
func permutations(X) -> set equals
the set of all f where f is Permutation of X;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th1:
for f being set st f in permutations(X) holds f is Permutation of X
proof
let f be set;
assume f in permutations(X);
then ex g being Permutation of X st g = f;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th2:
permutations(X) c= Funcs(X,X)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in permutations(X);
then x is Permutation of X by Th1;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:9;
end;
theorem Th3:
permutations(Seg n) = Permutations(n)
proof
thus permutations(Seg n) c= Permutations(n)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in permutations(Seg n);
then x is Permutation of Seg n by Th1;
hence thesis by MATRIX_1:def 12;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in Permutations(n);
then x is Permutation of Seg n by MATRIX_1:def 12;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let X;
cluster permutations(X) -> non empty functional;
coherence
proof
the Permutation of X in permutations(X);
hence permutations(X) is non empty;
let x be object;
thus thesis by Th1;
end;
end;
registration
let X be finite set;
cluster permutations(X) -> finite;
coherence
proof
permutations(X) c= Funcs(X,X) by Th2;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th4:
permutations {} = {{}}
proof
set P = permutations {};
thus P c= {{}}
proof
let x be object;
assume x in P;
then x is Permutation of {} by Th1;
hence thesis by TARSKI:def 1;
end;
let x be object;
assume x in {{}};
then x = {}({},{}) by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let X;
set c = permutations(X);
func SymGroup(X) -> strict constituted-Functions multMagma means
:Def2:
the carrier of it = permutations(X) &
for x,y being Element of it holds x * y = y qua Function * x;
existence
proof
defpred P[Element of c,Element of c,set] means $3 = $2 * $1;
A1: for x,y being Element of c ex z being Element of c st P[x,y,z]
proof
let x,y be Element of c;
reconsider f = x, g = y as Permutation of X by Th1;
g*f in c;
hence thesis;
end;
consider F being BinOp of c such that
A2: for x,y being Element of c holds P[x,y,F.(x,y)] from BINOP_1:sch 3(A1);
set S = multMagma(#c,F#);
S is constituted-Functions;
then reconsider S as strict constituted-Functions multMagma;
take S;
thus the carrier of S = c;
let x,y be Element of S;
thus thesis by A2;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let A,B be strict constituted-Functions multMagma such that
A3: the carrier of A = permutations(X) and
A4: for x,y being Element of A holds x * y = y qua Function * x and
A5: the carrier of B = permutations(X) and
A6: for x,y being Element of B holds x * y = y qua Function * x;
now
let x,y be Element of A;
reconsider f = x, g = y as Element of B by A3,A5;
thus (the multF of A).(x,y) = x*y
.= y qua Function * x by A4
.= f*g by A6
.= (the multF of B).(x,y);
end;
hence thesis by A3,A5,BINOP_1:2;
end;
end;
theorem Th5:
for f being Element of SymGroup(X) holds f is Permutation of X
proof
let f be Element of SymGroup(X);
the carrier of SymGroup(X) = permutations(X) by Def2;
hence thesis by Th1;
end;
registration
let X;
cluster SymGroup(X) -> non empty associative Group-like;
coherence
proof
the carrier of SymGroup(X) = permutations(X) by Def2;
hence the carrier of SymGroup(X) is non empty;
thus SymGroup(X) is associative
proof
let x,y,z be Element of SymGroup(X);
thus x*y*z = z qua Function*(x*y) by Def2
.= z qua Function*(y qua Function*x) by Def2
.= z qua Function*y qua Function*x by RELAT_1:36
.= (y*z)qua Function*x by Def2
.= x*(y*z) by Def2;
end;
set e = id X;
e in permutations(X);
then reconsider e as Element of SymGroup(X) by Def2;
take e;
let h be Element of SymGroup(X);
reconsider h1 = h as Permutation of X by Th5;
thus h * e = e * h1 by Def2
.= h by FUNCT_2:17;
thus e * h = h1 * e by Def2
.= h by FUNCT_2:17;
h1" in permutations(X);
then reconsider g = h1" as Element of SymGroup(X) by Def2;
take g;
thus h * g = g qua Function * h by Def2
.= e by FUNCT_2:61;
thus g * h = h qua Function * g by Def2
.= e by FUNCT_2:61;
end;
end;
theorem Th6:
1_SymGroup(X) = id X
proof
set e = id X;
e in permutations(X);
then reconsider e as Element of SymGroup(X) by Def2;
now
let h be Element of SymGroup(X);
reconsider h1 = h as Permutation of X by Th5;
thus h * e = e * h1 by Def2
.= h by FUNCT_2:17;
thus e * h = h1 * e by Def2
.= h by FUNCT_2:17;
end;
hence thesis by GROUP_1:4;
end;
theorem
for x being Element of SymGroup(X) holds x" = x qua Function"
proof
let x be Element of SymGroup(X);
reconsider f = x as Permutation of X by Th5;
f" in permutations(X);
then reconsider g = f" as Element of SymGroup(X) by Def2;
A1: 1_SymGroup(X) = id X by Th6;
x * g = g qua Function * x by Def2;
then
A2: x*g = id X by FUNCT_2:61;
g * x = x qua Function * g by Def2;
then g*x = id X by FUNCT_2:61;
hence thesis by A2,A1,GROUP_1:def 5;
end;
registration
let n;
cluster Group_of_Perm(n) -> constituted-Functions;
coherence
proof
let x be set;
the carrier of Group_of_Perm(n) = Permutations(n) by MATRIX_1:def 13;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
SymGroup(Seg n) = Group_of_Perm(n)
proof
A1: the carrier of SymGroup(Seg n) = permutations(Seg n) by Def2;
A2: permutations(Seg n) = Permutations(n) by Th3
.= the carrier of Group_of_Perm(n) by MATRIX_1:def 13;
now
let a,b be Element of SymGroup(Seg n);
A3: a * b = b qua Function * a by Def2;
a is Permutation of Seg n & b is Permutation of Seg n by Th5;
then a in Permutations(n) & b in Permutations(n) by MATRIX_1:def 12;
hence (the multF of SymGroup(Seg n)).(a,b) =
(the multF of Group_of_Perm(n)).(a,b) by A3,MATRIX_1:def 13;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A2,BINOP_1:2;
end;
registration
let X be finite set;
cluster SymGroup(X) -> finite;
coherence
proof
the carrier of SymGroup(X) = permutations(X) by Def2;
hence the carrier of SymGroup(X) is finite;
end;
end;
theorem Th9:
SymGroup({}) = Trivial-multMagma
proof
set G = SymGroup({});
A1: the carrier of G = permutations {} by Def2;
now
let x,y be Element of {{}};
reconsider f = x, g = y as Element of G by Th4,Def2;
thus (the multF of G).(x,y) = f * g
.= {} by A1,Th4,TARSKI:def 1
.= op2.(x,y) by FUNCOP_1:77;
end;
hence thesis by A1,Th4,BINOP_1:2;
end;
registration
cluster SymGroup {} -> trivial;
coherence by Th9;
end;
definition
let X,Y;
let p be Function of X,Y such that
A1: X <> {} & Y <> {} and
A2: p is bijective;
set G = SymGroup(X), H = SymGroup(Y);
func SymGroupsIso(p) -> Function of SymGroup(X),SymGroup(Y) means
:Def3:
for x being Element of SymGroup(X) holds it.x = p*x*(p");
existence
proof
A3: dom p = X by A1,FUNCT_2:def 1;
A4: rng p = Y by A2,FUNCT_2:def 3;
reconsider p1 = p" as Function of Y,X by A2,A4,FUNCT_2:25;
A5: rng p1 = X by A2,A3,FUNCT_1:33;
defpred P[Function,set] means $2 = p*$1*p1;
A6: for x being Element of G ex y being Element of H st P[x,y]
proof
let x be Element of G;
reconsider f = x as Permutation of X by Th5;
set y = p*f*p1;
rng f = X by FUNCT_2:def 3;
then rng (p*f) = Y by A4,A1,FUNCT_2:14;
then rng y = Y by A1,A5,FUNCT_2:14;
then y is Permutation of Y by A2,A1,FUNCT_2:57;
then y in permutations(Y);
then reconsider y as Element of H by Def2;
take y;
thus P[x,y];
end;
ex h being Function of G,H st
for x being Element of G holds P[x,h.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A6);
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let f,g be Function of G,H such that
A7: for x being Element of G holds f.x = p*x*(p") and
A8: for x being Element of G holds g.x = p*x*(p");
let x be Element of G;
thus f.x = p*x*(p") by A7
.= g.x by A8;
end;
end;
theorem Th10:
for X,Y being non empty set
for p being Function of X,Y st p is bijective holds
SymGroupsIso(p) is multiplicative
proof
let X,Y be non empty set;
let p be Function of X,Y such that
A1: p is bijective;
set h = SymGroupsIso(p);
A2: rng p = Y by A1,FUNCT_2:def 3;
let x,y be Element of SymGroup(X);
reconsider p1 = p" as Function of Y,X by A1,A2,FUNCT_2:25;
A3: id X = p1*p by A2,A1,FUNCT_2:29;
A4: h.x = p*x*p1 & h.y = p*y*p1 by A1,Def3;
reconsider f = x, g = y as Permutation of X by Th5;
thus h.(x*y) = p*(x*y)*p1 by A1,Def3
.= p*(g*f)*p1 by Def2
.= p*(g*(id X)*f)*p1 by FUNCT_2:17
.= p*(g*p1*p*f)*p1 by A3,RELAT_1:36
.= p*(g*p1*(p*f))*p1 by RELAT_1:36
.= p*(g*p1)*(p*f)*p1 by RELAT_1:36
.= p*(g*p1)*(p*f*p1) by RELAT_1:36
.= p*g*p1*(p*f*p1) by RELAT_1:36
.= h.x * h.y by A4,Def2;
end;
theorem Th11:
for X,Y being non empty set
for p being Function of X,Y st p is bijective holds
SymGroupsIso(p) is one-to-one
proof
let X,Y be non empty set;
let p be Function of X,Y such that
A1: p is bijective;
set h = SymGroupsIso(p);
A2: rng p = Y by A1,FUNCT_2:def 3;
reconsider p1 = p" as Function of Y,X by A1,A2,FUNCT_2:25;
A3: id X = p1*p by A1,A2,FUNCT_2:29;
let x,y be object such that
A4: x in dom h & y in dom h and
A5: h.x = h.y;
reconsider x, y as Element of SymGroup(X) by A4;
reconsider f = x, g = y as Permutation of X by Th5;
h.x = p*f*p1 & h.y = p*g*p1 by A1,Def3;
then p*f*(p1*p) = p*g*p1*p by A5,RELAT_1:36;
then p*f*(p1*p) = p*g*(p1*p) by RELAT_1:36;
then p*f = p*g*id X by A3,FUNCT_2:17;
then p1*(p*f) = p1*(p*g) by FUNCT_2:17;
then p1*p*f = p1*(p*g) by RELAT_1:36;
then p1*p*f = p1*p*g by RELAT_1:36;
then f = id X*g by A3,FUNCT_2:17;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:17;
end;
theorem Th12:
for X,Y being non empty set
for p being Function of X,Y st p is bijective holds
SymGroupsIso(p) is onto
proof
let X,Y be non empty set;
let p be Function of X,Y such that
A1: p is bijective;
set G = SymGroup(X), H = SymGroup(Y);
set h = SymGroupsIso(p);
A2: dom p = X by FUNCT_2:def 1;
thus rng h c= the carrier of H;
let y be object;
assume y in the carrier of H;
then reconsider y as Element of H;
reconsider g = y as Permutation of Y by Th5;
A3: rng p = Y by A1,FUNCT_2:def 3;
then reconsider p1 = p" as Function of Y,X by A1,FUNCT_2:25;
A4: id Y = p*p1 by A1,A3,FUNCT_2:29;
A5: dom h = the carrier of G by FUNCT_2:def 1;
set x = p1*g*p;
A6: rng p1 = X by A1,A2,FUNCT_1:33;
rng g = Y by FUNCT_2:def 3;
then rng (p1*g) = X by A6,FUNCT_2:14;
then rng x = X by A3,FUNCT_2:14;
then x is Permutation of X by A1,FUNCT_2:57;
then x in permutations X;
then reconsider x as Element of G by Def2;
h.x = p*x*p1 by A1,Def3
.= p*(p1*g)*p*p1 by RELAT_1:36
.= p*(p1*g)*(p*p1) by RELAT_1:36
.= (id Y)*g*(id Y) by A4,RELAT_1:36
.= g*(id Y) by FUNCT_2:17
.= y by FUNCT_2:17;
hence thesis by A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
theorem
X,Y are_equipotent implies SymGroup(X),SymGroup(Y) are_isomorphic
proof
assume
A1: X,Y are_equipotent;
then consider p being Function such that
A2: p is one-to-one and
A3: dom p = X and
A4: rng p = Y by WELLORD2:def 4;
per cases;
suppose X = {};
hence thesis by A1,CARD_1:26;
end;
suppose
A5: X <> {};
then
A6: Y <> {} by A1,CARD_1:26;
reconsider p as Function of X,Y by A3,A4,FUNCT_2:2;
A7: p is onto by A4;
then reconsider h = SymGroupsIso(p) as
Homomorphism of SymGroup(X),SymGroup(Y) by A2,A5,A6,Th10;
take h;
thus h is one-to-one onto by A2,A5,A6,A7,Th11,Th12;
end;
end;
definition
let G;
func CayleyIso(G) -> Function of G,SymGroup(the carrier of G) means
:Def4:
for g being Element of G holds it.g = *g;
existence
proof
set c = the carrier of G;
defpred P[Element of G,set] means $2 = *$1;
A1: for x being Element of G ex y being Element of SymGroup(c) st P[x,y]
proof
let x be Element of G;
set y = *x;
y in permutations(c);
then reconsider y as Element of SymGroup(c) by Def2;
take y;
thus thesis;
end;
ex f being Function of G,SymGroup(c) st
for x being Element of G holds P[x,f.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A1);
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let a,b be Function of G,SymGroup(the carrier of G) such that
A2: for g being Element of G holds a.g = *g and
A3: for g being Element of G holds b.g = *g;
let x be Element of G;
thus a.x = *x by A2
.= b.x by A3;
end;
end;
registration
let G;
cluster CayleyIso(G) -> multiplicative;
coherence
proof
set c = the carrier of G;
set f = CayleyIso(G);
let g1,g2 be Element of G;
A1: f.(g1*g2) is Permutation of c by Th5;
then
A2: dom(f.(g1*g2)) = c by FUNCT_2:def 1;
f.g1*f.g2 is Permutation of c by Th5;
then
A3: dom(f.g1*f.g2) = c by FUNCT_2:def 1;
now
let y be object;
assume y in dom(f.(g1*g2));
then reconsider x = y as Element of G by A1,FUNCT_2:def 1;
thus f.(g1*g2).y = (*(g1*g2)).x by Def4
.= x*(g1*g2) by TOPGRP_1:def 2
.= x*g1*g2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (*g2).(x*g1) by TOPGRP_1:def 2
.= (*g2).((*g1).x) by TOPGRP_1:def 2
.= ((*g2) * (*g1)).x by FUNCT_2:15
.= ((f.g2) * (*g1)).x by Def4
.= (f.g2 qua Function* f.g1).y by Def4
.= (f.g1 * f.g2).y by Def2;
end;
hence thesis by A2,A3;
end;
end;
registration
let G;
cluster CayleyIso(G) -> one-to-one;
coherence
proof
set f = CayleyIso(G);
let g1,g2 be object such that
A1: g1 in dom f & g2 in dom f and
A2: f.g1 = f.g2 and
A3: g1 <> g2;
reconsider g1,g2 as Element of G by A1;
A4: f.g1 = *g1 & f.g2 = *g2 by Def4;
A5: dom(*g1) = the carrier of G by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A6: g1" <> g2" by A3,GROUP_1:9;
A7: (*g1).(g1") = g1"*g1 by TOPGRP_1:def 2
.= 1_G by GROUP_1:def 5;
(*g2).(g2") = g2"*g2 by TOPGRP_1:def 2
.= 1_G by GROUP_1:def 5;
hence thesis by A2,A4,A5,A6,A7,FUNCT_1:def 4;
end;
end;
::$N Cayley Theorem
theorem
G, Image CayleyIso(G) are_isomorphic by GROUP_6:68;