:: On the {B}orel Families of Subsets of Topological Spaces
:: by Adam Grabowski
::
:: Received August 30, 2005
:: Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies STRUCT_0, SETFAM_1, ZFMISC_1, CARD_3, TARSKI, NUMBERS, FUNCT_1,
RELAT_1, CARD_1, ORDINAL1, SUBSET_1, XBOOLE_0, PRE_TOPC, TOPGEN_1,
FINSET_1, WAYBEL23, RCOMP_1, RLVECT_3, TOPS_1, CONNSP_1, PCOMPS_1,
NATTRA_1, PROB_1, MEASURE1, MCART_1, TOPMETR, CONNSP_2, WAYBEL30,
OPENLATT, EQREL_1, NAT_1, TOPGEN_4;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, XTUPLE_0, XFAMILY, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1,
CARD_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, CARD_3, MCART_1, WELLORD2, FINSET_1, SETFAM_1,
DOMAIN_1, CONNSP_2, ZFMISC_1, STRUCT_0, OPENLATT, MEASURE1, PRE_TOPC,
TOPS_1, TOPS_2, CONNSP_1, TDLAT_3, WAYBEL23, PROB_1, TOPMETR, CANTOR_1,
ORDERS_4, TOPGEN_1, TOPGEN_3, PCOMPS_1;
constructors MEASURE1, TOPS_1, CONNSP_1, COMPTS_1, TDLAT_3, TOPMETR, OPENLATT,
WAYBEL23, TOPGEN_2, ORDERS_4, TOPGEN_1, TOPGEN_3, PCOMPS_1, XTUPLE_0,
XFAMILY;
registrations SUBSET_1, RELSET_1, FINSET_1, NUMBERS, CARD_1, MEASURE1,
STRUCT_0, PRE_TOPC, TOPS_1, TDLAT_3, TOPMETR, TOPREAL6, TOPGEN_2,
TOPGEN_1, CARD_3, COMPTS_1, XTUPLE_0;
requirements NUMERALS, BOOLE, SUBSET;
begin :: Preliminaries
definition
let T be 1-sorted;
func TotFam T -> Subset-Family of T equals
:: TOPGEN_4:def 1
bool the carrier of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:1
for T being set, F being Subset-Family of T holds F is countable
iff COMPLEMENT F is countable;
registration
cluster RAT -> countable;
end;
scheme :: TOPGEN_4:sch 1
FraenCoun11 { P[set] } :
{ {n} where n is Element of RAT : P[n] } is countable;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:2
for T being non empty TopSpace, A being Subset of T holds Der A = { x
where x is Point of T : x in Cl (A \ {x}) };
registration
cluster finite -> second-countable for TopStruct;
end;
registration
cluster REAL -> non countable;
end;
registration
cluster non countable -> non finite for set;
cluster non finite -> non trivial for set;
cluster non countable non empty for set;
end;
reserve T for non empty TopSpace,
A, B for Subset of T,
F, G for Subset-Family of T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:3
A is closed iff Der A c= A;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:4
for T being non empty TopStruct, B being Basis of T, V being
Subset of T st V is open & V <> {} ex W being Subset of T st W in B & W c= V &
W <> {};
begin :: Regular Formalization: Separable Spaces
:: 1.3.7. Theorem
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:5
density T c= weight T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:6
T is separable iff ex A being Subset of T st A is dense countable;
:: 1.3.8. Corollary
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:7
T is second-countable implies T is separable;
registration
cluster second-countable -> separable for non empty TopSpace;
end;
:: Exercises
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:8 :: Exercise 1.3.A.
for T being non empty TopSpace, A, B being Subset of T st A, B
are_separated holds Fr (A \/ B) = Fr A \/ Fr B;
:: Exercise 1.3.B.
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:9 :: Ex. 1.3.B. a)
F is locally_finite implies Fr union F c= union Fr F;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:10 :: also for empty TopSpaces
for T being discrete non empty TopSpace holds T is separable iff
card [#]T c= omega;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:11
for T being discrete non empty TopSpace holds T is separable iff T is
countable;
begin :: Families of Subsets Closed for Countable Unions and Complement
definition
let T, F;
attr F is all-open-containing means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 2
for A being Subset of T st A is open holds A in F;
end;
definition
let T, F;
attr F is all-closed-containing means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 3
for A being Subset of T st A is closed holds A in F;
end;
definition
let T be set, F be Subset-Family of T;
attr F is closed_for_countable_unions means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 4
for G being countable Subset-Family of T st G c= F holds union G in F;
end;
registration
let T be set;
cluster -> closed_for_countable_unions for SigmaField of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:12
for T being set, F being Subset-Family of T st F is
closed_for_countable_unions holds {} in F;
registration
let T be set;
cluster closed_for_countable_unions -> non empty for Subset-Family of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:13
for T being set, F being Subset-Family of T holds F is
SigmaField of T iff F is compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions;
definition
let T be set, F be Subset-Family of T;
attr F is closed_for_countable_meets means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 5
for G being countable Subset-Family of T st G c= F holds meet G in F;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:14
for F being Subset-Family of T holds F is all-closed-containing
compl-closed iff F is all-open-containing compl-closed;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:15
for T being set, F being Subset-Family of T st F is compl-closed holds
F = COMPLEMENT F;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:16
for T being set, F, G being Subset-Family of T st F c= G & G is
compl-closed holds COMPLEMENT F c= G;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:17
for T being set, F being Subset-Family of T holds F is
closed_for_countable_meets compl-closed iff F is closed_for_countable_unions
compl-closed;
registration
let T;
cluster all-open-containing compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions ->
all-closed-containing closed_for_countable_meets for Subset-Family of T;
cluster all-closed-containing compl-closed closed_for_countable_meets ->
all-open-containing closed_for_countable_unions for Subset-Family of T;
end;
begin :: On the Families of Subsets
registration
let T be set;
let F be countable Subset-Family of T;
cluster COMPLEMENT F -> countable;
end;
registration
let T be TopSpace;
cluster empty -> open closed for Subset-Family of T;
end;
registration
let T be TopSpace;
cluster countable open closed for Subset-Family of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:18
for T being set holds {} is empty Subset-Family of T;
registration
cluster empty -> countable for set;
end;
begin :: Collective Properties of Families
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:19
F = { A } implies (A is open iff F is open);
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:20
F = { A } implies (A is closed iff F is closed);
definition
let T be set, F, G be Subset-Family of T;
redefine func INTERSECTION (F,G) -> Subset-Family of T;
redefine func UNION (F,G) -> Subset-Family of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:21
F is closed & G is closed implies INTERSECTION (F,G) is closed;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:22
F is closed & G is closed implies UNION (F,G) is closed;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:23
F is open & G is open implies INTERSECTION (F,G) is open;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:24
F is open & G is open implies UNION (F,G) is open;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:25
for T being set, F, G being Subset-Family of T holds card
INTERSECTION (F,G) c= card [:F,G:];
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:26
for T being set, F, G being Subset-Family of T holds card UNION
(F,G) c= card [:F,G:];
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:27
for F, G being set holds union UNION (F,G) c= union F \/ union G;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:28
for F, G being set st F <> {} & G <> {} holds union F \/ union G
= union UNION (F,G);
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:29
for F being set holds UNION ({},F) = {};
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:30
for F, G being set holds UNION (F, G) = {} implies F = {} or G = {};
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:31
for F, G being set st INTERSECTION (F, G) = {} holds F = {} or G = {};
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:32
for F, G being set holds meet UNION (F,G) c= meet F \/ meet G;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:33
for F, G being set st F <> {} & G <> {} holds meet UNION(F,G) = meet F
\/ meet G;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:34
for F, G being set st F <> {} & G <> {} holds meet F /\ meet G =
meet INTERSECTION(F,G);
begin :: F_sigma and G_delta Types of Subsets
definition
let T be TopSpace, A be Subset of T;
attr A is F_sigma means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 6
ex F being closed countable Subset-Family of T st A = union F;
end;
definition
let T be TopSpace, A be Subset of T;
attr A is G_delta means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 7
ex F being open countable Subset-Family of T st A = meet F;
end;
registration
let T;
cluster empty -> F_sigma G_delta for Subset of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:35
[#]T is F_sigma;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:36
[#]T is G_delta;
registration
let T;
cluster [#]T -> F_sigma G_delta;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:37
A is F_sigma implies A` is G_delta;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:38
A is G_delta implies A` is F_sigma;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:39
A is F_sigma & B is F_sigma implies A /\ B is F_sigma;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:40
A is F_sigma & B is F_sigma implies A \/ B is F_sigma;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:41
A is G_delta & B is G_delta implies A \/ B is G_delta;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:42
A is G_delta & B is G_delta implies A /\ B is G_delta;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:43
for A being Subset of T st A is closed holds A is F_sigma;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:44
for A being Subset of T st A is open holds A is G_delta;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:45
for A being Subset of R^1 st A = RAT holds A is F_sigma;
begin :: T_1/2 Topological Spaces
definition
let T be TopSpace;
attr T is T_1/2 means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 8
for A being Subset of T holds Der A is closed;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:46
for T being TopSpace st T is T_1 holds T is T_1/2;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:47
for T being non empty TopSpace st T is T_1/2 holds T is T_0;
registration
cluster T_1/2 -> T_0 for TopSpace;
cluster T_1 -> T_1/2 for TopSpace;
end;
begin :: Condensation Points
:: Page 77 - 1.7.11
definition
let T, A;
let x be Point of T;
pred x is_a_condensation_point_of A means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 9
for N being a_neighborhood of x holds N /\ A is not countable;
end;
reserve x for Point of T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:48
x is_a_condensation_point_of A & A c= B implies x
is_a_condensation_point_of B;
definition
let T, A;
func A^0 -> Subset of T means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 10
for x being Point of T holds x in it iff x is_a_condensation_point_of A;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:49
for p being Point of T st p is_a_condensation_point_of A holds p
is_an_accumulation_point_of A;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:50
A^0 c= Der A;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:51
A^0 = Cl (A^0);
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:52
A c= B implies A^0 c= B^0;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:53
x is_a_condensation_point_of A \/ B implies x
is_a_condensation_point_of A or x is_a_condensation_point_of B;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:54
(A \/ B)^0 = (A^0) \/ (B^0);
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:55
A is countable implies not ex x being Point of T st x
is_a_condensation_point_of A;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:56
A is countable implies A^0 = {};
registration
let T;
let A be countable Subset of T;
cluster A^0 -> empty;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:57
T is second-countable implies ex B being Basis of T st B is countable;
registration
cluster second-countable non empty for TopSpace;
end;
begin :: Borel Families of Subsets
registration
let T;
cluster TotFam T -> non empty all-open-containing compl-closed
closed_for_countable_unions;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:58
for T being set, A being SetSequence of T holds
rng A is countable non empty Subset-Family of T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:59
for F, G being Subset-Family of T st F is all-open-containing &
F c= G holds G is all-open-containing;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:60
for F, G being Subset-Family of T st F is all-closed-containing & F c=
G holds G is all-closed-containing;
definition
let T be 1-sorted;
mode SigmaField of T is SigmaField of the carrier of T;
end;
registration
let T be non empty TopSpace;
cluster compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions closed_for_countable_meets
all-closed-containing all-open-containing for Subset-Family of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:61
sigma TotFam T is all-open-containing compl-closed
closed_for_countable_unions;
registration
let T;
cluster sigma TotFam T -> all-open-containing compl-closed
closed_for_countable_unions;
end;
registration
let T be non empty 1-sorted;
cluster sigma-additive compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions non empty
for Subset-Family of T;
end;
registration
let T be non empty TopSpace;
cluster -> closed_for_countable_unions for SigmaField of T;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:62
for T being non empty TopSpace, F being Subset-Family of T st F is
compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions holds F is SigmaField of T;
registration
let T be non empty TopSpace;
cluster all-open-containing for SigmaField of T;
end;
registration
let T be non empty TopSpace;
cluster Topology_of T -> open all-open-containing;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:63
for X being Subset-Family of T ex Y being all-open-containing
compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions Subset-Family of T st X c= Y & for Z
be all-open-containing compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions Subset-Family
of T st X c= Z holds Y c= Z;
definition
let T;
func BorelSets T -> all-open-containing compl-closed
closed_for_countable_unions Subset-Family of T means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 11
for G being
all-open-containing compl-closed closed_for_countable_unions Subset-Family of T
holds it c= G;
end;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:64
for F being closed Subset-Family of T holds F c= BorelSets T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:65
for F being open Subset-Family of T holds F c= BorelSets T;
theorem :: TOPGEN_4:66
BorelSets T = sigma Topology_of T;
definition
let T, A;
attr A is Borel means
:: TOPGEN_4:def 12
A in BorelSets T;
end;
registration
let T;
cluster F_sigma -> Borel for Subset of T;
end;
registration
let T;
cluster G_delta -> Borel for Subset of T;
end;