:: Bidual Spaces and Reflexivity of Real Normed Spaces
:: by Keiko Narita , Noboru Endou and Yasunari Shidama
::
:: Received November 29, 2014
:: Copyright (c) 2014-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies RLSUB_1, HAHNBAN, UNIALG_1, DUALSP01, DUALSP02, RLVECT_1,
ARYTM_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, RSSPACE, RSSPACE3, REAL_1, TARSKI, MSSUBFAM,
STRUCT_0, FUNCOP_1, FCONT_1, NORMSP_0, SEQ_2, LOPBAN_1, ORDINAL2,
ARYTM_3, ALGSTR_0, NORMSP_1, FUNCT_2, PRE_TOPC, SUBSET_1, ZFMISC_1,
NUMBERS, SEQ_4, XBOOLE_0, CARD_1, SUPINF_2, COMPLEX1, XXREAL_0, XXREAL_2,
NAT_1, REWRITE1, METRIC_1, RELAT_2, FUNCT_7, RCOMP_1, NORMSP_2, RLVECT_3,
BINOP_2, NORMSP_3, EUCLID, MOD_4, MEMBERED;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1,
PARTFUN1, EUCLID, FUNCT_2, BINOP_1, BINOP_2, DOMAIN_1, FUNCOP_1, NUMBERS,
MEMBERED, XCMPLX_0, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, REAL_1, COMPLEX1, XXREAL_2, SEQ_4,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, PRE_TOPC, RLVECT_1, RLVECT_3, RLSUB_1, VECTSP_1,
NORMSP_0, NORMSP_1, NORMSP_2, HAHNBAN, RSSPACE, RSSPACE3, LOPBAN_1,
NFCONT_1, DUALSP01, NORMSP_3;
constructors REAL_1, EUCLID, REALSET1, RSSPACE3, BINOP_2, RELSET_1, SEQ_4,
HAHNBAN1, NORMSP_2, PCOMPS_1, RLVECT_3, NORMSP_3, NFCONT_1, MEMBERED;
registrations STRUCT_0, XREAL_0, NUMBERS, ORDINAL1, MEMBERED, XXREAL_0,
VALUED_0, RLVECT_1, FUNCT_2, SEQ_4, RELSET_1, FUNCT_1, NORMSP_3,
NORMSP_0, NORMSP_1, DUALSP01, XBOOLE_0, LOPBAN_1;
requirements NUMERALS, BOOLE, SUBSET, REAL, ARITHM;
begin :: The application of Hahn-Banach's Theorem
theorem :: DUALSP02:1
for V be RealNormSpace, X be SubRealNormSpace of V,
x0 be Point of V, d be Real st
ex Z be non empty Subset of REAL
st Z = {||.x-x0.|| where x is Point of V : x in X} &
d = lower_bound Z > 0 holds
not x0 in X &
ex G be Point of DualSp V st
( for x be Point of V st x in X
holds (Bound2Lipschitz(G,V)).x = 0 )
& (Bound2Lipschitz(G,V)).x0 = 1 & ||.G.|| = 1/d;
theorem :: DUALSP02:2
for V be RealNormSpace, Y be non empty Subset of V,
x0 be Point of V
st Y is linearly-closed & Y is closed & not x0 in Y holds
ex G be Point of DualSp V st
(for x be Point of V st x in Y holds (Bound2Lipschitz(G,V)).x = 0 )
& (Bound2Lipschitz(G,V)).x0 = 1;
theorem :: DUALSP02:3
for V be RealNormSpace, x0 be Point of V st x0 <> 0.V holds
ex G be Point of DualSp V
st (Bound2Lipschitz(G,V)).x0 = 1 & ||.G.|| = 1/||.x0.||;
theorem :: DUALSP02:4
for V be RealNormSpace, x0 be Point of V st x0 <> 0.V holds
ex F be Point of DualSp V
st ||.F.|| = 1 & (Bound2Lipschitz(F,V)).x0 =||.x0.||;
theorem :: DUALSP02:5
for V be RealNormSpace st V is non trivial holds
ex F be Point of DualSp V st ||.F.|| = 1;
theorem :: DUALSP02:6
for V be RealNormSpace st V is non trivial holds
DualSp V is non trivial;
begin :: Bidual Spaces of Real Normed Spaces
theorem :: DUALSP02:7
for V be RealNormSpace, x be Point of V st V is non trivial holds
( ex X be non empty Subset of REAL st
X = {|.(Bound2Lipschitz(F,V)).x.|
where F is Point of DualSp V :||.F.|| = 1 }
& ||.x.|| = upper_bound X ) &
( ex Y be non empty Subset of REAL st
Y = {|.(Bound2Lipschitz(F,V)).x.|
where F is Point of DualSp V :||.F.|| <= 1 }
& ||.x.|| = upper_bound Y );
theorem :: DUALSP02:8
for V be RealNormSpace, x be Point of V st
for f be Lipschitzian linear-Functional of V holds f.x = 0
holds x = 0.V;
definition
let X be RealNormSpace;
let x be Point of X;
func BiDual x -> Point of DualSp DualSp X means
:: DUALSP02:def 1
for f be Point of DualSp X holds it.f = f.x;
end;
definition
let X be RealNormSpace;
func BidualFunc X -> Function of X, DualSp DualSp X means
:: DUALSP02:def 2
for x be Point of X holds it.x = BiDual x;
end;
registration
let X be RealNormSpace;
cluster BidualFunc X -> additive homogeneous;
end;
registration
let X be RealNormSpace;
cluster BidualFunc X -> one-to-one;
end;
theorem :: DUALSP02:9
for X be RealNormSpace
st X is non trivial holds
BidualFunc X is LinearOperator of X, DualSp DualSp X &
for x be Point of X
holds ||.x.|| = ||. (BidualFunc X).x .||;
theorem :: DUALSP02:10
for X be RealNormSpace st X is non trivial holds
ex DuX be SubRealNormSpace of DualSp DualSp X,
L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X, DuX
st L is bijective
& DuX = Im(BidualFunc X)
& (for x be Point of X holds L.x = BiDual x)
& for x be Point of X holds ||.x.|| = ||. L.x .||;
begin :: Uniform Boundedness Theorem for Linear Functionals
definition
func RNS_Real -> RealNormSpace equals
:: DUALSP02:def 3
NORMSTR (# REAL, In(0,REAL), addreal, multreal, absreal #);
end;
theorem :: DUALSP02:11
for X be RealNormSpace, x be Element of REAL, v be Point of RNS_Real
st x=v holds -x = -v;
theorem :: DUALSP02:12
for X be RealNormSpace, x be object holds
x is additive homogeneous Function of X,REAL
iff
x is additive homogeneous Function of X,RNS_Real;
theorem :: DUALSP02:13
for X be RealNormSpace, x be object holds
x is Lipschitzian additive homogeneous Function of X,REAL
iff
x is Lipschitzian additive homogeneous Function of X,RNS_Real;
theorem :: DUALSP02:14
for X be RealNormSpace holds
the carrier of DualSp X
= the carrier of R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(X,RNS_Real);
theorem :: DUALSP02:15
for X be RealNormSpace,
x,y be Point of DualSp X,
v,w be Point of R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(X,RNS_Real)
st x=v & y=w holds x + y = v + w;
theorem :: DUALSP02:16
for X be RealNormSpace,
a be Element of REAL, x be Point of DualSp X,
v be Point of R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(X,RNS_Real)
st x=v holds a*x = a*v;
theorem :: DUALSP02:17
for X be RealNormSpace,
x be Point of DualSp X,
v be Point of R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(X,RNS_Real)
st x=v holds -x = -v;
theorem :: DUALSP02:18
for X be RealNormSpace,
x be Point of DualSp X,
v be Point of R_NormSpace_of_BoundedLinearOperators(X,RNS_Real)
st x=v holds ||.x.|| = ||.v.||;
theorem :: DUALSP02:19
for X be RealNormSpace, L be Subset of X
st X is non trivial
& (for f be Point of DualSp X holds
ex Kf be Real st
0 <= Kf
& for x be Point of X st x in L holds |. f.x .| <= Kf)
holds
ex M be Real st 0 <= M
& for x be Point of X st x in L holds ||.x.|| <= M;
theorem :: DUALSP02:20
for X be RealNormSpace, L be non empty Subset of X st
X is non trivial &
( for f be Point of DualSp X holds
ex Y1 be Subset of REAL st
Y1 = {|. f.x .| where x is Point of X : x in L}
& sup Y1 < +infty ) holds
ex Y be Subset of REAL st
Y = {||.x.|| where x is Point of X : x in L}
& sup Y < +infty;
begin :: Reflexivity of Real Normed Spaces
definition
let X be RealNormSpace;
attr X is Reflexive means
:: DUALSP02:def 4
BidualFunc X is onto;
end;
theorem :: DUALSP02:21
for X be RealNormSpace holds X is Reflexive
iff
for f be Point of DualSp DualSp X
ex x be Point of X st
for g be Point of DualSp X holds f.g = g.x;
theorem :: DUALSP02:22
for X be RealNormSpace holds
X is Reflexive iff Im (BidualFunc X) = DualSp DualSp X;
theorem :: DUALSP02:23
for X be RealNormSpace st X is non trivial Reflexive holds
X is RealBanachSpace;
theorem :: DUALSP02:24
for X be RealBanachSpace, M be non empty Subset of X st
X is Reflexive & M is linearly-closed closed holds
NLin(M) is Reflexive;
theorem :: DUALSP02:25
for X,Y be RealNormSpace,
L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X,Y,
y be Lipschitzian linear-Functional of Y
holds y*L is Lipschitzian linear-Functional of X;
theorem :: DUALSP02:26
for X,Y be RealNormSpace,
L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X,Y
st L is isomorphism holds
ex T be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of DualSp X,DualSp Y st
T is isomorphism
& for x be Point of DualSp X holds T.x = x*(L");
theorem :: DUALSP02:27
for X,Y be RealNormSpace,
L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X,Y,
T be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of DualSp X, DualSp Y st
L is isomorphism & T is isomorphism
& for x be Point of DualSp X holds T.x = x*(L") holds
ex S be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of DualSp Y, DualSp X
st S is isomorphism
& S = T"
& for y be Point of DualSp Y holds S.y = y*L;
theorem :: DUALSP02:28
for X,Y be RealNormSpace
st ex L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X,Y
st L is isomorphism holds
(X is Reflexive iff Y is Reflexive);
theorem :: DUALSP02:29
for X be RealNormSpace st X is non trivial holds
ex L be Lipschitzian LinearOperator of X, Im(BidualFunc X)
st L is isomorphism;
theorem :: DUALSP02:30
for X be RealBanachSpace st X is non trivial holds
X is Reflexive iff DualSp X is Reflexive;